指月錄

馬祖道一禪師(七)

菩薩行

尚德講述

天儀記錄

Book of Moon-directing

Master Dao-yi, Patriarch Ma

Part VII

The Path of Bodhisattvas

 

Lecturer: Shang-te

Recorder: Tian-yi

Translator: WEI Sheng

Vice President, Daonan Academy

 

 

陶淵明說得好:

既自以心為形役

奚惆悵而獨悲

《瑜伽師地論》是講如何達到《指月錄》的那個境界與修為,講的是方法。《指月錄》是講結果,以普通話來說,就是講生活的態度與生活的方式要如何瀟灑。真正的禪門人物不到三、四百人,每一個大禪師都是很瀟灑的。

想到陶淵明,他也很瀟灑,其〈歸去來兮〉最後兩句話:

聊乘化以歸盡

樂夫天命復奚疑

聊乘化,大鵬鳥上昇九萬里,人世間不管了。像莊子老婆死了敲鑼打鼓,喝點老酒,看看山,看看水,作作詩。樂夫天命復奚疑,對存在、對活著本身沒甚麼懷疑了。學道家是這樣的。

淵明先生也歸到淨土。他曾去廬山拜訪淨土宗祖師慧遠大師,寫了一首禪詩:

石頭橋畔虎溪東

夜叩柴扉謁遠公

月到上方諸品淨

心持半偈萬緣空

    學佛是歷劫修行。信仰在哪裡?生活方式、正確的人生觀、瀟灑在哪裡?這很重要。否則聽這個課,一點用都沒有,自己騙自己罷了。當然,若是不了解人性、不了解社會,那麼超越和瀟灑是出不來的。人性是甚麼?有許多方面是絕對醜陋的。因此,社會絕對醜陋,社會絕對競爭,絕對是優勝劣敗。多數人都是被奴役的,被少數人所欺侮的,但各位不知道,所以跳不出被奴役的牢籠。那麼我呢?一生機會好,自五六歲就目睹戰爭、殺戮與欺凌。我看得很清楚,一直到現在,世界和人類,許多都還是假的。不過,說到終極處,人都是自己奴役自己,大家奴役到一起而已。

陶淵明說得好

既自以心為形役

奚惆悵而獨悲

所以我不在這裡面,我跳出來。假如沒有境界,沒有信仰,沒有瀟灑的生活,那麼聽《指月錄》這個課就毫無意義了。

  Tao Yuanming said well: "since the heart is labored uner the body, why are you depressed in solitude?"

  Yogacarabhumi Sastra is on how to achieve the realm and fruits in the Book of Moon-directing, namely, the method. The Book of Moon-directing is on the result, that is, the attitude to life and life style with panache. There are only three to four hundred of true Zen figures, all with great panache.

  I recall Tao Yuanming with great panache, whose "Homeward Bound" ended with two words:

  "So would I be content to live and die, and without questionings of the heart, gladly accept Heaven’s will." 

  "So would I be content to live and die": the Roc flys on Cloud Nine up to the highest heavens, and discards the world. Like Kwang-tzu, when his wife died, he knocked the gong, drunk and enjoyed the landscapes. "and without questionings of the heart, gladly accept Heaven’s will": no doubt to existence or living in itself. There are typical Taoists.

  Venerable Yuanming also converted to Pure Land. He had visited Patriarch Hui-Yuan of the Pure Land School at Mountain Lu, and wrote a Zen verse:

Beside the stone bridge east of Tiger Stream,

I knocked the door in the night to visit Master Yuan;

heavenly moonlight purifies all existences,

And half verse in heart has transcended any conditions.

Learning from Buddha means cultivation over eras. Where is your faith? Where is the life style and right view of life with panache? It's very important. Or else it's meaningless to take this lecture, nothing but self-deception. Certainly, without understanding of human nature and society, there would be no transcendence or panache. What is human nature? It's definitely ugly in many aspects. Therefore, the society is definitely ugly, with competition and survival of the fitness. Majority are labored and humiliated by minority, but you are ignorant and thus are unable to shake off the bonds. How about me? I have good chance for my life, to wit fighting, killing and bullying since five to six years old. I am very clear that until now many of the world and humankind are false. However, in the final analysis, it's man himself that labor himself, and men labor themselves.

  Tao Yuanming said well: "since the heart is labored uner the body, why are you depressed in solitude?"

  Therefore I don't reside with but shake off the bonds. Without this realm, without the faith, without the life with panache, it's meaningless to take the lecture on the Book of Moon-directing.

 

原文

一日示眾云。道不用修。但莫污染。何為污染。但有生死心。造作趣向。皆是污染。若欲直會其道。平常心是道。何謂平常心。無造作。無是非。無取捨。無斷常。無凡聖。故經云。非凡夫行。非聖賢行。是菩薩行。

Original Text

One day the master told the students: "There is no need to practice the Tao, except to protect from defilement. What is defilement? Any intentions of life and death, artificiality and tendencies are all defilements. If you want to concord with the Tao directly, to maintain an ordinary mind is to concord with the Tao. What is an ordinary mind? No artificiality, no right or wrong, no accept or reject, no nihilism or eternalism, no worldling or sage. Therefore the sutra says: "It’s not the path of worldlings, not the path of sages, but the Path of Bodhisattvas."

 

道不用修

一日示眾云。道不用修。但莫污染。

道可道。非常道。道就在你身邊,無所不道,無一不道,無時不道,無地不道。既然無時無刻無地不是道,那又去修個甚麼呢?道本無修,但莫污染。要在淨上。

所以六祖惠能大師說:

沒有祕密(祕密就是道),道就在你身上。

人本來就有一寶,祕在形山,終日在自己面門中出入。

There is no need to practice the Tao

One day the master told the students: "There is no need to practice the Tao, except to protect from defilement."

  The Tao that is explicable is not the enduring Tao. The Tao is around you, whatever, whomever, whenever and whereever. Since whatsoever is the Tao, where is the need to practice? There is no need to practice the Tao, except to protect from defilement and to reside with purity.

  Therefore the Sixth Patriarch Hui-Neng said:

There is no secret (i.e., the Tao). The Tao is in yourself.

  Originally man has a jewel, concealed in the human body, while getting in and out of the face everyday.

 

生死心即污染

何為污染?但有生死心。

怎麼樣在淨上?甚麼是污染?

有生就有死。有死就有生。生和死,死和生,一切的存在都是成住壞空,成住壞空就在存在中,只要是存在一定是成住壞空。「成住壞空」用另外一個名詞來說就是「生生死死、死死生生」;因為本來「成住壞空」,所以本來「生生死死、死死生生」,也就叫做「法爾如是」,如此也就是沒有一個生生死死、死死生生。但,做為一個眾生,做為一個人,就有生生死死,就有死死生生,哪裡來的?自阿陀那識來的。阿陀那識衍生出自己的無明。無明就是煩惱,由無明衍生出六個大煩惱和二十個隨煩惱,所以有生生死死、死死生生。這個就叫做「染污」。

馬祖真了不起,談到關鍵了。那麼要怎麼解決染污呢?

第一、 從阿陀那識而來的生生死死、死死生生,所以必須了掉十二因緣。十二因緣一開始就是無明,無明是跟阿賴耶識的染污面相應在一起的,無論你是甚麼大菩薩等等,也必須了辟支佛的十二因緣不可。

第二、 認知的純覺、純覺的認知不在生死中,也不是甚麼永恆,要把這個找出來,也就是要純覺遺身。要五蘊讓位,初步證到空性,用禪門的話來講,叫做:

空心及第

大阿羅漢了分段生死,菩薩了變易生死。

造作趣向。皆是污染。

一切一切的是是非非、恩恩怨怨、真真假假、譽譽毀毀、有與沒有,和宇宙客觀主觀一切的存在,因為它們都是「趣向」。不得已碰搞在一塊,不執著它們,才能歸向淨。

怎麼樣不執著?不造作,無趣向?

趣向就是方向,就是修為作為的方向。沒有甚麼作為修為,但也不是鄉愿,是智慧,「在無分別中有分別,在有分別中無分別」;絕對不是搞成整日無記、昏昏沉沉,不但不是,還要做到臨濟大禪師說的:

「靈光獨耀,迥脫根塵」。

要做到這個,契應智慧的最高峰。

一旦契應智慧的最高峰,便會遠離妄想執著。遠離了妄想執著,恐怖便會消融無踪。一旦無恐怖,自在解脫,便出來了。

Any intentions of life and death are all defilements

What is defilement? Any intentions of life and death...

  How to reside with purity? What is defilement?

  Where there is life, there is death. Where there is death, there is life. Life and death, death and life, all existences are in the process of arising, abiding, ceasing and emptiness, while arising, abiding, ceasing and emptiness are among all existences. Any existence is in the process of arising, abiding, ceasing and emptiness. In other words, the process of "arising, abiding, ceasing and emptiness" is samsara. Originally it is in the process of arising, abiding, ceasing and emptiness, therefore it is originally in samsara, namely, "natural appearance", thus there is no samsara. However, as a sentient being, as a man, there is samsara. Where is samsara from? From Adana-vijnana. Adana-vijnana derives ignorance of oneself. Ignorance is affliction, the six primary afflictions and twenty secondary afflictions. Therefore there is samsara. This is called defilement.

  Patriarch Ma is so extraordinary that he has touched the key point. How to resolve the defilements?

  First, samsara is derived from adana-vijnana, so you have to eliminate the Twelve Links of Dependent Origination. The beginning link is ignorance, which works in concord with the defiled part of alaya-vijnana. Any great Bodhisattvas have to eliminate the Twelve Links of Dependent Origination of Pratyeka-Buddha.

  Second, purifying the awareness of recognition is beyond life and death. It's not something eternal. You have to find this out, that is, purifying the awareness and forgetting the body. To get rid of the five Skandhas and preliminarily verify emptiness, in other words from Zen School, it is called "passing the imperial examination of mental emptiness".

  Arhats eliminate the fragmentary samsara, while Bodhisattvas eliminate the miraculous samsara.

... artificiality and tendencies are all defilements.

  All right and wrong, gratitude and resentment, true and false, condemnation and praise, beings and non-being, and all objective and subjective existences in the universe, are tendencies. Forced to integrate with these, only when you don't attach to any of these can you revert to purity.

  How could you not attach to artificiality or tendency?

  Tendency is the direction of practice and action. Without any practice or action, it's not hypocrite but wisdom, "discriminate in non-discrimination, non-discriminate in discrimination". It's definitely not forgetting or depression, but what is said by great Master Linji: "spiritual lights illuminate and you transcend Indriyas and dusts."

  You should get this, to concord with the peak of wisdom.

  Once you concord with the peak of wisdom, you are away from delusions and attachements. Then fears will disappear. And there come liberation and deliverance.

 

平常心是道

若欲直會其道。平常心是道。何謂平常心?

無造作:

一切思想和行為,無一不造作,都是下意識、潛意識、變態意識等等裡面,發為行動造作出來的。

不造作又不得不面對造作,要有智慧,智慧是由知識和經驗煉出來的。所以要徧學一切法,要歷劫修行。

其實凡存在必造作,無一不造作。所以禪也者是超越存在的,在存在中超越存在。那麼怎樣在存在中超越存在?這就是智慧、功夫、和修養了。透過智慧〈認識〉、功夫〈修練修養〉去實現不造作。自己不造作,也不接受造作,便超然物外,道通為一,而又超越之。

做到這樣,就是契應幻作真時真亦假,無為有處有還無。於是:

我本無心於萬物

何妨萬物常圍繞

無是非:

人生在世無一不是非。有是非,一定恩怨;有是非,一定有真假對錯。有是非,一定諍諍吵吵。

有說:

修道

入山惟恐不深

離人惟恐不遠

人即是非也。

有小和尚向老和尚告狀,說:那兩位和尚吵架。老和尚回答:他們搞是非,你來告狀,更是搞是非。

To maintain an ordinary mind is to concord with the Tao

If you want to concord with the Tao directly, to maintain an ordinary mind is to concord with the Tao. What is an ordinary mind?

No artificiality...

  All thoughts and behaviors are artificial. They are artificial actions derived from unconscious, subconsciousness and abnormal consciousness.

  We should be without artificiality, but we have to face artificiality. So we should have wisdom, extracted from knowledges and experiences. Therefore we have to learn pervasively and cultivate for eras.

  Actually any existence is artificial. So Zen transcend existence, that Zen is immanent in existence and beyond existence. How to be immanent in existence and beyond existence? That relies on wisdom, feat and cultivation. Through wisdom (understanding) and feat (cultivation and practice) to acchieve non-artificiality. Without artificiality by yourself or by others, you can detach from all things, "all things are comprehended in their unity", and you further transcend all of these.

  Such is to concord with that "Truth becomes fiction when the fiction's true; Real becomes not-real where the unreal's real." In this way,

"I am actually indifferent to anything,

what harm is there surrounded by everything?"

No right or wrong...

  Any human life is in right and wrong. Where there are right and wrong, there are gratitude and resentment, true and false, dispute and wrangle.

  It's said that practitioners seclude in mountains and withdraw from people as remotely as possible.

  Human is right and wrong.

  A little monk told the Elder on two monks in quarrel. The Elder answered: "They are in right and wrong; you tell on them, and you are even in right and wrong."

 

無取捨:

    無造作了,無是非了,便能做到無取捨,這是有層次的,是菩薩境界。

無斷常:

就是入不二法門。兩邊、一與二、斷與常、中道,統統超越。在此提一下:

儒家中庸的:

執其兩端,用其中於民。

    「執其兩端」就是不二法門。「用其中於民」,就是「四無量心」。

無凡聖:

    上面這麼一段講平常心。就少吃一點,不要吃太飽,也就是老子說的:

少私寡欲

運動有時,讓身體健康;沒有是非,便不執著;沒有真假對錯,不在有、無與空裡面,便一切超越。這就是平常心。故能用客觀心、同情、同理心,包容、含融、會通一切。

自己反省反省、推敲推敲,是否不平常心。是否人世的壞都懂了,但人的平懷、人的可以超越,却接不到。甚麼原因,這就要自己去參、去檢討了。往哪裡參和檢討呢?當然往二十個隨煩惱和六個根本煩惱中,自己去檢討。

No accept or reject...

  Without artificiality, without right or wrong, there could be no select or reject. It's stratified realm of Bodhisattvas.

No nihilism or eternalism...

  Entering into the doctrine of non-duality. Both sides, one and two, nihilism and eternalism, madhyamapratipad (the middle way), are all transcended. Please note, in The Doctrine of Mean of Confucianism:

"He took hold of their two extremes, determined the Mean, and employed it in his government of the people."

  "He took hold of their two extremes": the doctrine of non-duality;

  "determined the Mean, and employed it in his government of the people": the four unlimited minds.

No worldling or sage.

  The paragraph is on ordinary mind. To take less, not too full, as Lao-tzu said: with little selfishness and desire.

  Do exercise at times, to make the body healthy; without right or wrong, you can detach; without true or false, without being or non-being and emptiness, you can transcend all; this is the ordinary mind. Therefore you can employ objective mind and mind with compassion and same reason, to include, assimilate and integrate all.

  Reflect on yourself and introspect whether you have ordinary mind. You know all the bad in the world, but can't accept the detachment and transcendence. The answer is in your inspection and self-criticism. On what? On the twenty secondary afflictions and six primary afflictions.

 

菩薩行

故經云。非凡夫行。非聖賢行。是菩薩行。

    眾生即凡夫,文殊菩薩在華嚴經四聖諦品中,一開始便說:

眾生凡夫是罪。

菩薩也者,沒有自己,永遠為眾生服務,叫做菩薩。

這堶n注意,禪沒有丟過菩薩行,丟掉菩薩行即不是禪。整個人類還願意活下去,還能夠活下去,就是還留下那麼一點點如孟子所說的:

行義以顯仁

孟子學說,是菩薩行也。

現在許多學佛學道的,十個中有九個就搞到昏沉、無記、散亂和掉舉堶情A有的什麼都不管、隨便、甚麼都可以,在講理和有禮上,沒有是非對錯,把行義以顯仁完全丟掉,也沒有道義,個人變成了廢物,而寺廟就拼命搞錢搞假,競相爭搞虛假,搞並不華麗的華麗。

什麼道義與高貴都沒有了。

孟子講的,一個小孩掉到水裡面你不去救他嗎?

所以,人類還能夠走下去,是必須要有一點道義的。

南老師峨眉山閉關下山說:

了了了時無可了

行行行到法王家

祂一生行到法王家

就是

大菩薩行

    際此世界文明大變、怪變時節,作為一個人,特別是有幾千年文化、十幾億人口的中國人,對人類未來的命運,必須有一份切身的關懷和修為,便是:

菩薩行的首要任務。

The Path of Bodhisattvas

Therefore the sutra says: "It’s not the path of worldlings, not the path of sages, but the Path of Bodhisattvas."

  Sentient beings are worldlings. In the beginning of the chapter of Four Noble Truths in Avatamsaka Sutra, Manjusri Bodhisattva said: "Sentient beings and worldlings are sinful."

  Bodhisattvas are those who are selfless and serve for sentient beings for ever.

  Please note, Zen hasn't discarded the Path of Bodhisattvas. Without the Path of Bodhisattvas it is not Zen. The only humble reason humankind would like to live on and could live on is said by Mencius:

 Fulfill righteousness to display benevolence.

  The doctrine of Mencius is the Path of Bodhisattvas.

  Many practitioners of Buddhism and Taoism are in depression, forgetting, scattering and flightiness. Someone are OK to anything, without right or wrong in reason and propriety, and completely discard the fulfillment of righteousness to display benevolence, without moral obligation. These individuals become losers, while temples strive to make money, make false, and make pomposity lack of magnificence.

  There is not any moral obligation or nobility.

  Mencius said: how could you not save a child dropped in water?

  Therefore, moral obligation is required so humankind could live on.

  Master said after his retreat at Mountain E'mei:

  Pratipatti, pratipatti, when there is nothing to pratipatti;

  Fulfill, fulfill, I fulfill the vow to home of Dharma King.

  He fulfilled to home of Dharma King, that is, the Path of MahaBodhisattvas.

  At this moment of radical change in world civilizations, being a man, especially one in the billions of Chinese men with culture over thousand years, you must have a personal solicitude and cultivation towards the destiny of humankind in the future. This is the primary task in the Path of Bodhisattvas.

待續

                          2013-11-23

達摩書院

To be continued.

2013.11.23

 Dharma Academy