指月錄

馬祖道一禪師(六)

何年方得解脫身

尚德講述

天儀記錄

Book of Moon-directing

Master Dao-yi, Patriarch Ma

Part VI

Whenever could we be liberated?

Lecturer: Shang-te

Recorder: Tian-yi

Translator: WEI Sheng

 

轉語

金剛經大義

各位好:

在沒有繼續講馬祖之前,跟各位轉語一下。

人生在世,所有的道門,包括天主教、基督教、各門各派,有兩個目的,一是活著比較安靜,另外就是,走的時候,要離開人世的時候,沒有恐懼,有歸宿感。所有的道門都是如此,沒有一個例外。

我是研究哲學的,二十一歲時決心研究哲學,哲學目的是了解人是甚麼,存在是甚麼,宇宙是甚麼。慢慢的,我四十八歲歸到禪,那是因為我自己真在方法上,言語道斷,心行處滅,證到內觸妙樂,常光現前。我是個經驗主義者,文字本身我不太相信的,我只相信我自己實際經歷過的經驗。現在我慢慢的真相信「不可思議境界」。

A Switch-over Word

Keynotes of the Diamond Sutra

  Hello everyone.

  Before continuing with Patriarch Ma, I have a switch-over word for you.

  Living in the world, men of all religions including Christianity, Protestantism and various schools have two missions: one is to live a peaceful life, the other is to pass away with a sense of belonging instead of fear. All religions are in this way without exception.

  I majored in philosophy. I was determined to study philosophy at twenty-one years old. The mission of philosophy is to understand what man is, what existences are, and what the universe is. Gradually, I reverted to Zen because I myself had experienced the internal sublime bliss and the revelation of holy light, via the speechless and non-concerning method. As an empiricist, I don't believe in words themselves, but just believe in my own experience. At present, gradually I believe in the inconceivable realm.

 

今天忽然想到我常念的一個資料,就是《金剛經》。所以現在很簡短的講幾點。

人要生活得平靜。怎麼樣才生活得平靜呢?生活一定要像太陽、像月亮一樣。太陽早上起來,黃昏落下;月亮晚上起來,早上落下去。《金剛經》你們都很熟,但是沒有做到。一開始釋迦牟尼佛去托缽,托缽回來收衣缽,然後跏趺而坐。祂天天如此,一生如此。這是很重要的一點。南老師祂桌上的一支筆,放在甚麼地方,便永遠放在甚麼地方。幾十年前英國大哲學家羅素,被俄國的列寧邀去參觀,之後羅素寫了回憶錄。他說列寧真了不起,其他的不用說,列寧的辦公桌上甚麼都沒有,就只有一支鉛筆、一張紙。他那種單純,比苦行僧還要苦行僧。也就是說,我們回過頭來說釋迦牟尼佛,祂本來可以做皇帝,不做皇帝了,祂出家做和尚,祂甚麼都沒有,甚麼都不要,就是在一個靜坐的地方,每天就在那打坐,然後,打坐完畢,就托缽,托缽完畢,有人要祂講話,祂就講話。

說到講話,各位要注意,金剛經說「一時」,甚麼叫做一時?沒有時間,超越時間,叫做一時。祂超越了時間。時間是不相應行法,不相應行法也者:人是沒有辦法左右時間的,人是被時間所支配的。但是,釋迦牟尼佛祂超越了時間,所以在《金剛經》堶掄縑u無壽者相」。因此,說「一時」,表示祂不受時間的支配與控制。然而,祂在不受時間的支配與控制中,每天、每晚、一生,都生活在無盡的平靜與一貫及一致中。祂絕對不矛盾和游疑。

真正與宇宙存在的平靜、一貫及一致,合而為一,就是佛。

剛才我就《金剛經》的開始講了兩三分鐘。生活有規律,超越時間,能做到這兩點就是大菩薩了,就是解脫了。你們二十多年來,和我一起生活,到現在還要我講課,不需要的,完全不需要的,人生如果真正當下單純一致,無所東搖西擺,絕對就是自在。還要聽什麼課。

  Unexpectedly, I recall today a material that I often read, the Diamond Sutra. So I'd make a few brief comments now.

  Man should live a peaceful life. How to live a peaceful life? Life should be like the sun and the moon. The sun rises in the morning and sets in the evening, while the moon rises in the evening and sets in the morning. You are all familiar with the Diamond Sutra, but you have never managed to realize it. In the beginning, Shakyamuni Buddha went begging for food, put mantle and alms bowl away afterward, and then sat leg-crossed. He was like this for his life. This is a key point. Master Nan always placed his pen in the same position on his desk. Russell visited Lenin on invitation in Russia several decades ago, and later recalled in his memoirs that Lenin had more extraordinary purity than ascetic monks, as there was nothing except a pencil and a piece of paper on his desk. That is to say, let's revert to Shakyamuni Buddha. He could have been an emperor, but he renounced the secular life to be a monk instead of an emperor, possessed nothing, demanded nothing, meditated somewhere everyday, went begging for food, and spoke on request.

  As to 'speaking', everybody attention please, the Diamond Sutra says 'at one time'. What is 'at one time'? No time, beyond time, is called 'at one time'. He has transcended time. Time is a 'element not concomitant with mind'. By 'element not concomitant with mind', we mean that men are unable to control time but are controlled by time. However, Shakyamuni Buddha has transcended time, and thus spoken of 'the devoid of the appearance of a life' in the Diamond Sutra. Therefore, by 'at one time' we mean that he is beyond the domination and control by time. However, beyond the domination and control by time, he lives in infinite peace, consistency and coherence everyday and all his life, without contradicts or wanders.

  Just now I have spoken for a few minutes on the beginning of the Diamond Sutra. To live a regular life and to transcend time, that is great Bodhisattva, and that is liberation. You have lived with me for over twenty years, but still ask me to give lectures. That is unnecessary, totally unnecessary. The moment your life is truly pure and consistent without wandering, absolutely it is freedom. Where is the room for lectures?

 

《金剛經》往前走,一繼續就說「善男子善女人」,所有的道門文化,它的開始與過程,全部是一個字,就是「善」,沒有任何一個道門文化例外。因此我們就要反省一下,包括我自己在內,自己是否在善中,應知中國文化的核心價值就是善,由善引生出「厚」;所以,我一再講,佛法六個大煩惱〈貪、嗔、癡、慢、疑、惡 見〉,二十個大中小隨煩惱〈忿、恨、惱、覆、誑、諂、憍、害、嫉、慳、不信、懈怠、放逸、無慚、無愧、散亂、昏沉、掉舉、失正念、不正知〉,我們的生生世世、世世生生,全部在二十個大中小隨煩惱堶情A是由六個大煩惱所派生出來的。二十個大中小隨煩惱,不去敲它,不去反省它,不去在這個上面去糾正自己,老是說我是孽障,我是業力,我是貪嗔癡,一點用都沒有。只是在起心動念這個上面敲,已經遲了。各位,要從自己生命的根根,存在的根根,自己為什麼這樣,善根為什麼起不來,要自己徹底去反省,才能得其要。當然我自己也不行。不自己在二十個大中小隨煩惱去做反省,善根出不來的,這是《金剛經》一開始講的,要善。

  What follows next in the Diamond Sutra is 'a good man or good woman'. The beginning and process of all religious denominations is the single word 'Goodness' without exception. So we should have introspection - myself included - whether we are in goodness? The core values of Chinese culture are goodness and goodness-derived magnanimity. Therefore I have repeatedly talked about the six fundamental afflictions (greed, anger, ignorance, arrogance, doubt, improper views) and the twenty derivative afflictions in three groups of lesser, middling, and greater. Generation after generation, we are in the twenty derivative afflictions, branches of the six fundamental afflictions. If you don't percuss the twenty derivative afflictions, introspect them, or correct them, but keep talking about your hindrance, your karma, or your greed, anger and ignorance, it is completely useless. It's already late to percuss your minds merely. Everybody should make a thorough introspection, in your life force, the root of your existence: why you are like this, and why your good roots don't arise. The essential (of Buddhism) can only be attained in this way. Of course I am not doing well. The good roots don't arise until you make introspection in the twenty derivative afflictions. This is the beginning of the Diamond Sutra, be good.

 

有了上面所說的各點以後,馬上解脫自在的道理便出來了,就是發心,發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心。在一個開始修、開始悟的過程裡面,絕對是發心。甚麼叫發心?永遠丟掉自己,為眾生服務!不是念頭,不是說我發心我要到地獄去救眾生,完全不是這樣,是自己有種平靜的身心,然後,實際的好事做盡,叫做發心。甚麼叫做實際的好事做盡呢?只要能做的就去做,叫做發心。佛法說「人無我、法無我」,馬上無我!發心,發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心。無我了,然後起修。

  With the aforementioned points, there comes the reason for liberation: the arousal of intention, to attain Annutara-samyak-sambodhi. The arousal of intention is the very beginning of cultivation and enlightenment. What is the arousal of intention? Desert yourself and serve others. It's not an idea that you dedicate to save sentient beings in hell. Not at all. The arousal of intention is to do good as much as possible, with your peaceful body and mind. What's that? To do good once you can, that is the arousal of intention. Buddhism talks of emptiness of oneself and emptiness of existences; if you arouse the intention to attain Annutara-samyak-sambodhi, immediately you reveal the emptiness of yourself. And then you can start to cultivate.

 

修甚麼呢?最重要最重要最重要,是修無分別心,往八地菩薩「無分別心、了所知障」前面走,這叫做發心。一旦發心,問題解決了沒有?金剛經後面全部就是講怎麼修。以六祖為例,要無四相〈無我相、無人相、無眾生相、無壽者相〉,要六波羅蜜,要三際托空〈過去心不可得、現在心不可得、未來心不可得〉,要三輪托空〈無施者、無受者、無施物〉,全是處理前面善和發心的問題。那麼,處理幹甚麼呢?金剛經的中間一個很大很大很大的結論出來了:

寂靜莊嚴

前面這些條件,根本目的是要我們歸到寂靜莊嚴。甚麼叫做寂靜?寂,寶蓋頭底下一個叔,寶蓋頭代表天,弟弟為叔叔,中國文化大哥為上,天既然把他蓋起來了,不要講話,沒甚麼好講的,講個甚麼。過去所造諸惡業,皆由無始貪嗔癡,為身語意之所造,寂不下來,一切就免談。靜呢,左邊一個青字,右是爭,跟青去爭,爭甚麼青,爭青天,爭萬里無雲萬里天。要把自己搞成像萬里無雲萬里天一樣。莊嚴,要像春夏的植物一樣,長得那麼壯,叫做莊。真正修行修得好的人,精氣神一定在平衡中飽滿,在飽滿中平衡。絕對不是愁眉苦臉,體力氣力也不好,整天昏昏沉沉,廢物一個,絕對不是這樣的。

  What to cultivate? The utmost important is to cultivate indiscrimination, towards Bodhisattvas at the eighth stage that are without discrimination or hindrances to wisdom. This is the arousal of intention. After the arousal of intention, have the problems been solved? Subsequent chapters of the Diamond Sutra are all on how to cultivate. Take the Sixth Patriarch as an example, devoid of the four appearances (of oneself, of others, of living beings and of a life), the six kinds of Paramita, emptiness of the three time periods (past, present and future), and emptiness of the three aspects (giver, receiver and alms), are all on the aforementioned goodness and arousal of intention. What for? A great summary in the middle of the Diamond Sutra comes out:

quiescence and majesty

  The fundamental purpose of aforementioned requirements for us is to revert to quiescence and majesty. [What is 寂靜(quiescence)? (silence), (uncle; younger brother) under (canopy), which stands for the heaven. In Chinese culture, senior brother is the superior; since the younger brother has been covered by the heaven, there is no room for speech. All my past evil karma, from the beginningless desire, anger and ignorance, are made by my body, speech and mind. Without quiescence, we can do nothing. How about (calm)? (blue) in the left and (strive) in the right, it to strive for a blue sky without clouds. You should be like a blue sky without clouds. 莊嚴(Majesty), (solemn) is as (robust) as plants in spring and summer. A good practitioner's vitality, Ki (energy), and spirit are for sure full and balanced. It's absolutely not a loser with a woeful face,  weak body and depressed mind. No way.]

 

以上是我報告馬祖時,談一點金剛經,作為尚德皈依、禮敬馬祖大禪師的一點轉語。

  Before the report on Patriarch Ma, I made the above statement on the Diamond Sutra, as a switch-over word of my  devotion and veneration for Grandmaster Patriarch Ma.

 

原文

僧問。如何修道。師云。道不屬修。若言修得。修成還壞。即同聲聞。若言不修。即同凡夫。

曰。云何即得達道。師云。自性本來具足。但於善惡事上不滯。喚作修道人。取善捨惡。觀空入定。即屬造作。更若向外馳求。轉疏轉遠。但盡三界心量。一念妄想。即是三界生死根本。但無一念。即除生死根本。即得法王無上珍寶。無量劫來。凡夫妄想。諂曲邪偽。我慢貢高。合為一體。

Original Text

  A monk asked: 'How to cultivate the Tao?' The master answered: 'The Tao is beyond cultivation. If you say that the Tao is accomplished via cultivation, it can also collapse, and you are the same as Sravaka; if you say that (you don't) cultivate the Tao, you are the same as worldling.'

  The monk asked again: 'Then how to attain the Tao?' The master answered: 'The self-nature is innately complete in itself. Whoever detached from good and evil is called practitioner. It's affected to adopt good and discard evil, or to discern emptiness and enter into concentration. It's even worse that the more you seek outward the further alienated you are. Among all minds of the three realms, any single delusion is the life force (the root of life and death) of the three realms; and once you have no mind, you have eliminated the life force, and obtained the peerless grail of the lord (the king of dharma). From time immemorial, the worldlings' delusions like flattery, perversion, deceit, dishonesty, pride and arrogance are combined in one.

 

修道重心

「僧問。如何修道。師云。道不屬修。若言修得。修成還壞。即同聲聞。若言不修。即同凡夫」:

道可道,非常道。不但不必修,連說都不可。

道無所在,無所不在。禪門有一句話:

「吾有一寶,密在形山,終日在面門出入」。

    我有一寶,寶就是道,面門就是自己。

有說:

「學道須是鐵漢,

著手心頭便判,

直趣無上菩提,

一切是非莫管」。

菩提就是覺,沒講修。馬祖怎麼講?講道不在修。

  A monk asked: 'How to cultivate the Tao?' The master answered: 'The Tao is beyond cultivation. If you say that the Tao is accomplished via cultivation, it can also collapse, and you are the same as Sravaka; if you say that (you don't) cultivate the Tao, you are the same as worldling.'

  The Tao that can be described is not the enduring and unchanging Tao. The Tao is not only beyond cultivation, but also beyond speech.

  The Tao is nowhere but everywhere. There is a saying of Zen School:

  I have a jewel concealed in the human body while getting in and out of the face everyday.

  I have a jewel, which is the Tao. The face stands for oneself.

  There is a saying:

  A Buddhist practitioner should be an ironman, who embarks on his mind straightly, aspires to the peerless enlightenment (Bodhi) directly, and is thoroughly detached from right and wrong.

  Bodhi is enlightenment, no mention of cultivation. How does Patriarch Ma say? The Tao is beyond cultivation.

 

「若言修得。修成還壞」:

講得真好,道又不是什麼固定的東西,莊子說道無所在無所不在,大小便中都是。一切存在的本身就是道,非存在更是道,所以,在成住壞空過程中,是道;沒有成住壞空了,不在了,也是道。

一個問題:

不存在更是道。

為什麼?一切一切的成住壞空就是道;成住壞,空掉了,不存在更是道,為什麼?過去好像古今中外沒有人像我這樣具體說過,不存在更是道。道家只說一個「無」,西洋英語世界,從希臘來的文字就說一個「nothingness」。而我具體的講,不存在更是道。

If you say that the Tao is accomplished via cultivation, it can also collapse.

  Good point, the Tao is not any fixed thing. Kwang-tze says that the Tao is nowhere but everywhere, even in excrement. All existence themselves are the Tao, and non-existence is even the Tao; therefore, whatever in the process of arising, abiding, ceasing and emptiness is the Tao, and the absence from the process is also the Tao.

  One problem:

  non-existence is even the Tao.

  Why? The arising, abiding, ceasing and emptiness of all are the Tao; after the emptiness of arising, abiding and ceasing, non-existence is even the Tao, why? Past and present, at home and abroad, it seems that nobody like me has ever concretely spoken of that non-existence is even the Tao. Taoism just speaks of nothing, and western English-speaking world speaks of nothingness from Greek. It's only me that concretely speaks of that non-existence is even the Tao.

 

黃高証博士,你說一說為什麼?

黃:因為一切存在都在生滅法中,所謂不存在即超越生滅,也就是《易經》講的形而上者謂之道,是屬於形而上之道。形上不可說、不可說也。

師:存在的東西很多,以螞蟻為例,假定螞蟻不死,這個宇宙還能不能存在?宇宙不都是螞蟻了!任何一種存在不壞,宇宙就無法存在。所以任何一樣東西,一定是在成住壞空中,宇宙才能運作,才能存在(佛與菩薩例外,他們不在存在或不存在的範疇中),因此,不存在更是道。因為不存在更是道,所以《易經》講「一陰一陽謂之道」。陰和陽,陽和陰,不是道,一陰一陽兩者合在一起才是道,是具體的存在。陰陽構成存在,存在是在陰陽中,所以道就是一切存在,一切的存在就是道,莊子也就是這麼講,所以道通為一。

好,一陰一陽謂之道,一陰、一陽本身不是道,所以下面兩句話很重要:

繼之者善也,成之者性也。

儒家的哲學從這兩句話來的。繼之者善也,在陰陽相合的這個存在上面繼續,不破壞存在,接受存在,維護存在,就是善。

成之者性也,在這個一陰一陽所成的這個存在裡面,他的內涵與外延兩者,都知道了,使成之,歸到成之,瞭解成之,又超越成之,就是明心見性。所以,道不在修,在感應,在行之,在親證,道不遠人也。所以六祖惠能大師說:

一切的秘密,就在自己身上。

更需要瞭解的是,一切無自性,本來空。除本來空以外,並沒有一個什麼其它空不空。同時,空是從有而來,由之,色不異空,空不異色。

更更重要的是:

人是可以超越色與空的。

  Dr. Huang, can you explain?

  Dr Huang: Because all existences are in arising and ceasing. Non-existence is beyond arising and ceasing, which is the metaphysical Tao in the Iching. Metaphysical is inexplicable.

  Master: There are myriads of existences. Take the ant as an example, if the ant doesn't die, can the universe still exist? The universe is full of ants! The universe can't exist if any existence is not ceasing. So the universe can only operate and exist when all existences are in the process of arising, abiding, ceasing and emptiness. (Buddhas and Bodhisattvas are exceptions, as they are not in the categories of existences or non-existence.) Therefore, non-existence is even the Tao. As non-existence is even the Tao, the Iching says: 'The successive movement of the inactive (yin) and active (yang) operations constitutes what is called the Tao.' Yin and Yang, Yang and Yin, are not the Tao; the combination of Yin and Yang are the Tao, and they are concrete existences. Yin and Yang constitute existences, and existences are within Yin and Yang, therefore the Tao is all existences, and all existences are the Tao. This is also said by Kwang-tze, 'all things are comprehended in their unity'.

  Well, 'The successive movement of the inactive (yin) and active (yang) operations constitutes what is called the Tao.' Yin and Yang are not the Tao. So the next two words are important:

  'That which ensues as the result (of their movement) is goodness; that which shows it in its completeness is the natures (of men and things).'

  The Confucian Philosophy are from these two words. 'That which ensues as the result (of their movement) is goodness': that which ensues from the combination of Yin and Yang, and accepts and preserves the existences without destruction, is goodness.

  'That which shows it in its completeness is the natures (of men and things).' In the existences constituted by Yin and Yang, it is the revelation of true self-nature, to know the connotation and denotation, to show it in its completeness, to revert to the completeness, to understand the completeness, and to transcend the completeness. So the Sixth Patriarch Master Hui-neng says:

  All secrets are within yourself.

  It's more important to know that all existences are without self-nature and are innately of emptiness. Besides the innate emptiness, there is no other emptiness. Meanwhile, emptiness is from beings, therefore, emptiness is not different from forms, and forms are not different from emptiness.

  It's even important that:

  Man can transcend both forms and emptiness.

 

道不屬修,若言修得,修成還壞。即同聲聞:

你去修他還壞,就像羅漢與小乘教。釋迦摩尼佛批評小乘教是邪教,但是話又說回來,往悟十二因緣辟支佛道走,還非透過聲聞不可。馬祖,是大菩薩的示現,至少十地以上的菩薩。所有真正的大禪師,沒有一個例外,都是大菩薩的示現。

  The Tao is beyond cultivation. If you say that the Tao is accomplished via cultivation, it can also collapse, and you are the same as Sravaka.

  If you cultivate the Tao, it can also collapse, like Arhat and Hinayana. Shakyamuni Buddha criticizes Hinayana for being a cult; however, Sravaka (hearer) is the prerequisite for Pratyeka-Buddha of 'the twelve links of dependent origination'. Patriarch Ma is the manifestation of great Bodhisattva at least above the tenth stage. All true Zen Grandmasters are the manifestation of great Bodhisattvas without exception.

 

煩惱就是罪

「若言不修。即同凡夫」:

進一步說,若不修,便為不在道上的凡夫。甚麼叫做凡夫?眾生就是凡夫,凡夫就是有罪。黃博士,甚麼叫做有罪?

黃:有貪嗔癡慢疑惡見,就是有罪。

師:我的體會,煩惱就是罪。沒有煩惱就無罪了,好難!《大涅槃經》說:

「沒有煩惱了就是佛」。

沒有煩惱談何容易。人的存在本身,生生世世世世生生,沒有成佛以前,就在煩惱中打轉,所以無一不罪,無人不罪,因此要修,不修也不行,不修就是凡夫。因此禪師說話反反覆覆,真真假假,假假真真,一下子說道無修,然後又說要修,禪師說話在十方中又超越十方。十方是東、南、西、北、東南、西南、東北、西北、中央、上下,叫作十方。

說煩惱就是罪,係自人性的罪性來說的。人需要法律,不得不法律。所以孔子說:

齊之以刑,民免而無恥。

其實,罪與無罪,真與假,好與壞,種種不二法門,兩者都該超越。真正的佛法,是超越不二法門,而入不可思議境界的。

釋迦牟尼佛是超越性的大禪師,祂在一切中,又超越一切。祂在《金剛經》中說:

「我說般若波羅蜜,即非般若波羅蜜,是名般若波羅蜜」;

「我所說法,如筏喻者,法尚應捨,何況非法」。

尚德學達摩禪。達摩禪是中國禪門道門文化上很高的,我們現在講指月錄,聽了之後,要深思自己,馬祖的影子踩到了幾分?台灣現在到處神道教流行,熱熱鬧鬧。我們這裡研究唯識,唯識的主經是華嚴,唯識最後是歸到華嚴。《華嚴經》一開始也講神道教。

黃博士,你說一下華嚴經的神道。

黃:《華嚴經》一開始是「世主妙嚴品」,分五卷,所講第一個重點是,世尊在菩提樹下大徹大悟之後,四面八方的各種神都雲集讚嘆,其中包括從色界天的四禪天、三禪天、二禪天、初禪天、欲界六欲天的神、還有地水火風、山河大地一切諸神,全來皈依讚嘆。

師:我們現在講指月錄,講馬祖。我們也講唯識,唯識最後歸到華嚴,華嚴一開始是神道教。台灣神道教流行,到處神道教。我要問各位,究竟相信了甚麼?

大家真相信神,社會就不會亂。中國的神,著重在事功和人格上的成就,往生後也被人尊仰為神。例如禹、李冰父子治水有功,後人都奉為神。

Afflictions are exactly Sin

If you say that (you don't) cultivate the Tao, you are the same as worldling.

  Moreover, if you don't cultivate, you are worldlings away from the Tao. What are worldlings? Sentient beings are worldlings, and worldlings are sinful. Dr. Huang, what is sinful?

  Dr. Huang: Those with greed, anger, ignorance, arrogance, doubt and wrong views are sinful.

  Master: According to my understanding, afflictions are exactly sin. Without afflictions there is no sin. How difficult! The Mahaparinirvana Sutra says:

  Those without afflictions are exactly Buddha.

  Without afflictions is by no means easy. The existence of men turns round and round in afflictions generation after generation before becoming Buddha, therefore, all are sinful, and all men are sinful. Consequently, you have to cultivate, or else you are worldlings. So Zen masters are chopping and changing; for a while they say the Tao is beyond cultivation, while for another while they say you have to cultivate the Tao. Zen masters' speech is immanent in the ten directions and beyond the ten directions (east, south, west, north, southeast, southwest, northwest, northwest, center).

  That afflictions are exactly sin is from the perspective on human sinfulness. People need laws, and they have no choice but to make laws. Therefore Confucius says:

  'If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame.'

  In fact, sinful and innocent, true and false, good and bad - all kinds of non-duality doctrines should be transcended. True Buddhism transcend non-duality doctrines and enters into the inconceivable realm.

  Shakyamuni Buddha is a transcendental Zen Grandmaster who is immanent in all and beyond all. He says in the Diamond Sutra:

  'The Buddha said that Prajna Paramita is not Prajna Paramita. Therefore it is called Prajna Paramita.'

  'The Dharma I speak is like a raft. You must let go of dharmas. Even more so let go of non-dharmas.'

  Shang-te learns Bodhidharma Zen, which has high reputation in Chinese Schools of Zen and Tao. Learning the Book of Moon-directing, we should introspect how much we have learned from Patriarch Ma. Shintoism is popular and bustling in Taiwan now. We study the doctrine of vijnaptimatra here, whose primary scripture is the Avatamsaka Sutra (Hua-yen). Eventually the doctrine of vijnaptimatra reverts to the Avatamsaka, the beginning of which also speaks of Shintoism.

  Dr. Huang, please clarify Shintoism in the Avatamsaka Sutra.

  Dr. Huang: The beginning chapter of the Avatamsaka Sutra is 'the Wonderful Adornments of the Leaders of the Worlds' in five volumes. The first keynote: after the World Honoured One attained Buddhahood under the Bodhi tree, gods from all sides come together in crowds and praise and venerate him, including devas from the six heavens of the desire realm, devas from the four meditative spheres of the form realm, gods of earth, water, fire and wind, and gods of mountains and rivers.

  Master: We are speaking of the Book of Moon-directing and Patriarch Ma. We also speak of the doctrine of vijnaptimatra, which eventually reverts to the Avatamsaka with the beginning of Shintoism. Shintoism prevails everywhere in Taiwan. Let me ask you: what on earth do you believe in? If you truly believe in god, there would be no social disorder.

  Chinese gods emphasize the utilitarian achievement and moral quality. Those men are consecrated after they pass away. For example, Yu, Bing Li and his son of merit in taming the water, are consecrated by later generations.

 

自性具足

「曰。云何即得達道。師云。自性本來具足。但於善惡事上不滯。喚作修道人。取善捨惡。觀空入定。即屬造作。更若向外馳求。轉疏轉遠。但盡三界心量。一念妄想。即是三界生死根本。但無一念。即除生死根本。即得法王無上珍寶。」

怎麼叫作達道?成就法王無上珍寶,為達道。六祖說自性本來具足。甚麼叫做自性本來具足?人本來不需要太多的。

一切皆空,就一定無相,空且無相,就應無求。空、無相、無求,是佛法所說的「三解脫門」。

無求。甚麼叫作無求?

腦袋真的沒有念頭了。怎麼沒有念頭?二十個字:

在一切中。

超越一切。

遇境遇緣。

明明了了。

一切OK。

各位,這個叫作自性本自具足。

The self-nature is complete in itself

The monk asked again: 'Then how to attain the Tao?' The master answered: 'The self-nature is innately complete in itself. Whoever detached from good and evil is called practitioner. It's affected to adopt good and discard evil, or to discern emptiness and enter into concentration. It's even worse that the more you seek outward the further alienated you are. Among all minds of the three realms, any single delusion is the life force (the root of life and death) of the three realms; and once you have no mind, you have eliminated the life force, and obtained the peerless grail of the lord (the king of dharma).

  How to attain the Tao? It is to obtain the peerless grail of the lord. The Sixth Patriarch says the self-nature is innately complete in itself. What do you mean by saying the self-nature is innately complete in itself? Innately men don't need too much.

  All are of emptiness, so all are of formlessness, and hence all are of desirelessness. Emptiness, formlessness and desirelessness are the three gates of liberation in Buddhism.

  What is desirelessness?

  No mind in you head. How to attain no mind? Two words:

  Immanent in all and beyond all; be clarified and OK within all environments and conditions.

  Everyone, such is called 'the self-nature is innately complete in itself'.

 

「問如何達道。師云自性本來具足」:

沒有一個要達道、不達道的問題。甚麼叫做自性?自己存在本來的種種叫做自性。以為自己存在本來的種種之外還有個甚麼自性,不對也。自己存在的種種有兩方面,一個外延〈廣度、空間〉,一個是內在的〈內延,內在的內容〉,這兩點合在一起,過去現在未來整體性的存在的外延與內涵叫作自性。自性本空,自性本空是甚麼?成住壞空。一切存在,經過成住壞,壞就是空,並不是有空,才成住壞,因一切有形存在,一定成住壞,所以自性本空也。佛和大菩薩,是超越成住壞的,祂不在有上,也不在空上。因此佛不在什麼自性不自性上。自性一方面本空,另一方面又本自具足。

楞嚴經說得好,但在:

清淨圓明

了不可得

    又說:

如淨琉璃

內含寶月

The monk asked again: 'Then how to attain the Tao?' The master answered: 'The self-nature is innately complete in itself.

  There is no room to attain the Tao or not. What is the self-nature? The self-nature is the innate varieties of your own existence. It's wrong to think that there is any self-nature beyond your own existence. There are two aspects of your own existence, one is denotation (extention, space), another is connotation (intention). The integration of the two aspects of denotation and connotation, the wholeness of past, present and future, is called the self-nature. The self-nature is of emptiness, what is that? Arising, abiding, ceasing and emptiness. All existences are in the process of arising, abiding and ceasing. Ceasing is exactly emptiness. Arising, abiding and ceasing are not from emptiness. Because all formal existences are in the process of arising, abiding and ceasing, the self-nature is of emptiness. Buddhas and Bodhisattvas are beyond the process of arising, abiding and ceasing, as they belong to neither existence nor emptiness. Therefore Buddha is beyond self-nature. The self-nature is innately of emptiness and complete.

  The Shurangama Sutra says well:

Purity and clarity are unobtainable.

  And:

Like pure vaidurya (lapis lazuli) containing a precious moon.

 

「但於善惡事上不滯。喚作修道人」:

不像漿糊把郵票貼在信封上那樣,沾沾著著。不在善與惡上死纏,以為去天堂、到阿彌陀佛、彌勒菩薩內院去是善,以為到地獄去度眾,是善,完全錯!是誰講的?黃博士說一下。

黃:馬祖。

師:平平實實,超天超地,如此如此,是為真善,也不以其為善。明明了了,歸到心無念也。這就是釋迦牟尼佛說的:

天上天下,唯我獨尊。

唯識講的阿陀那識是甚麼?無善無惡,無覆無記,一切存在的本身本來無善無惡。

王陽明的「無善無惡心之體」表達錯誤,既然無善無惡,就沒有一個甚麼體!反過來說,既不在善也不在惡上,都超越之,天堂地獄,自心自造也。

Whoever detached from good and evil is called practitioner.

  Don't cling to good or evil like stamping the envelope with glue. It's completely wrong to regard it as goodness to go to paradise, the pure land of Amitabha Buddha, and inner court of Maitreya Bodhisattva, or to regard it as goodness to go to hell to redeem sentient beings. Who says this? Dr. Huang?

  Dr. Huang: Patriarch Ma.

  Master: Be simple and unadorned, beyond the heaven and earth, such and such is true goodness; moreover, you don't even take it as goodness. Be clarified, and revert to no-mind. This is Shakyamuni Buddha's saying:

I am the One between heaven and earth.

  What's adana-vijnana in the doctrine of vijnaptimatra? It's neither good nor evil, non-impedimentary moral neutrality. All existences are innately neither good nor evil.

  Yang-ming Wang's expression is wrong that 'the substance of  heart is neither good nor evil'. Since it's neither good nor evil, there is no substance. On the other hand, beyond good and evil, your own heart corresponds to paradise and hell.

 

沒有空與體

「取善捨惡。觀空入定。即屬造作」:

在這個地方聲明,我沒有做到。但我努力在練習,希望有一生一世能夠做到不取善捨惡。不在這個上面造作,回到自己本來的純真,就是悟道的《楞嚴經》講的:

純覺遺身。

觀空入定,即屬造作。一切本來空,無一不成住壞空,何須去觀。以空應空,空亦超越,就是大定。

有說一切隨緣,以為真有緣要隨,便永遠不得解脫,

所以:

    「本非因緣」;

又說一切自然主義,若死死的抓著自然主義,便絕對陷在死胡同中,

所以:

「非自然性」。

空間的空與佛法的空也不一樣。佛法的空是成住壞,所以空。《大智度論》說十八空,《大般若經》說二十空,它包含成住壞的空。十八空和二十空中的任何一空,當然是空的概念的一種,是在語言的方便法上,說明如何建立佛法的一種思想系統,實際上除了成住壞空以外並沒有另外一個甚麼東西叫做空。我一再一再從經驗、佛法本身、語言結構、語意、語法系統與後設語言(meta-language),宣揚這個理解,跟各位道友講這個理解,旨在以明「空」之真義也。空間的空又不一樣,空間無相,沒有形體。空間的空是相對於放置具體的東西來講的。空間的空有多大,誰都不知道!莊子就說「至大無外,至小無內」。宇宙究竟有多大,現在還不知道。

實在說來,除了成住壞空的空以外,也沒有一個什麼存在的「體」。萬物一體,也即道通為一。彼此相生相克,互融互化,如此而已。跳出這一歷程,常樂我淨,便就是:

There is no emptiness or substance

It's affected to adopt good and discard evil, or to discern emptiness and enter into concentration.

  I declare here that I haven't accomplished this. But I am making efforts to practice, with the hope that in one generation I can no longer adopt good or discard evil. No longer be affected but revert to my innate purity, as the Shurangama Sutra of enlightenment says:

Pure awareness disregarding the body

  It's affected to discern emptiness and enter into concentration. All are innately of emptiness, in the process of arising, abiding, ceasing and emptiness, and there is no need to concern. To conform emptiness with emptiness, and go beyond emptiness, such is grand concentration.

  It's said to follow conditions; however, if you think there are conditions to follow, you can never be liberated. Therefore, 'innately it cannot be attributed to causes and conditions.'

  It's also said all are of naturalism; however, if you stubbornly grasp to naturalism, you will be absolutely trapped in a blind valley, therefore, 'innately it cannot be attributed to spontaneity.'

  Space is different from Buddhism emptiness. Buddhism emptiness is from arising, abiding and ceasing. There are eighteen and twenty emptinesses in the Mahaprajna-paramita Sastra & Sutra, which comprise arising, abiding and ceasing. Each concept of these emptinesses is a expedient means of linguistic to establish Buddhist system of thought. Actually there is no emptiness besides arising, abiding and ceasing. I advocate this interpretation to you repeatedly by experience, Buddhism, language structure, semantics, syntax and meta-language, to reveal the true meaning of emptiness. Space is different as space is formless without shape. The space is relative to particular things to be placed. Nobody knows how large the space is. Kwang-tze says, 'That which is so great that there is nothing outside..., and that which is so small that there is nothing inside...' It remains elusive how large the universe is.

  In truth, besides the emptiness of arising, abiding and ceasing, there is no substance of existence. All existences are of a wholeness, that is, all things are comprehended in their unity. They mutually reinforce and neutralize each other, and integrate and transform into each other. No more than that. Buddha is beyond this process and with eternity, joy, personality and purity.

 

莫轉疎轉遠

「更若向外馳求。轉疎轉遠」:

    生生世世,世世生生,六根〈眼耳鼻舌身意〉落在六塵〈色聲香味觸法〉上,然後兩種合在一起,六識的功能起用,叫做向外馳求。所以,二十五圓通的大勢至菩薩念佛圓通章,最重要的話是:

「都攝六根」

眼耳鼻舌身意的根根要把它收攝起來。

「轉疎轉遠」:這文句真好。這個那個、那個這個、這個不那個、那個不這個、這個是那個不是、那個是這個不是等等,是是非非、恩恩怨怨,真真假假,統統都在這裡面。談人事的轉疎轉遠,就可以寫千部萬部書。整個人類,就在轉疎轉遠裡面,玩個不停。

哪個人前不說人,哪個人後不被人說,俗學一大堆,就是自己無從了生,也不知如何脫死。

一切簡簡單單,毫不歪曲,不轉疎轉遠,當下即是,

這便是

馬祖

Don't be further alienated

It's even worse that the more you seek outward the further alienated you are.

  Generation after generation, the six Indriyas conform with the six dusts; and together with the integration of Indriyas and dusts, the six consciousness take effects. Such is seeking outward. Therefore, in Mahastamaprapta Bodhisattva's doctrine on being mindful of Buddha, the most important word is:

Gathering in the six Indriyas

  Gather in the roots of your eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind.

  The more you seek outward the further alienated you are. Beautiful words. This and that, that and this, this is not that, that is not this, this is and that is not, that is and this is not, right and wrong, gratitude and resentment, true and false, are all within this phrase. Men and things that are further alienated can be the subject of million of books. The men ceaselessly play where they are further alienated.

  Whoever hasn't spoken ill of somebody in front of others? Whoever hasn't been spoken ill of behind his back? You have all kinds of worldling knowledge, except getting liberation from life and death.

  All are simple and straight. Don't be further alienated. Instant revelation. Such is Patriarch Ma.

 

「但盡三界心量」:

    重要的是甚麼呢?「盡」也者,即徧知,實現。在欲界、色界、無色界,要知道、實現釋迦牟尼佛講的「知所心量」。自己究竟是甚麼,自己究竟要甚麼,自己究竟有幾斤幾錢幾兩,自己究竟處在一個當下的甚麼內內外外的一種情境中。「但盡三界心量」,非常非常重要的一句話。眼前一步,內內外外,無不在心量中。自己在欲界、色界、無色界,如何自處?不給自己惹麻煩,也不讓別人麻煩,是真修行第一要務也。這也就是儒家所講的:

在方寸之間。

有時去此一步,即無死所;

有時進此一步,即萬丈深淵;

有時覽此天光,又春意無邊;

荊棘叢中下足易,月明簾下轉身難。

人生在實際處境中,有時方寸之為方寸,難焉哉!

不過,殷憂啟聖,憂患意識,是能:

壓倒一切

戰勝一切的

Among all minds of the three realms:

  Importantly, 'among all'() is to ubiquitously realize, to know and to actualize Shakyamuni Buddha's 知所心量 in desire realm, form realm and formless realm. What on earth are you? What on earth do you need? How important are you? What inner and outer circumstances are you within now? 'Among all minds of the three realms' is a very important phrase. The next step, inner and outer, are all in your mind. How can you keep yourself in desire realm, form realm and formless realm? Don't get into trouble nor trouble others, is the first principle of cultivation. This is also said by Confucianism:

in the square inch (of heart).

  Sometimes, one step away dies an ignominious death.

  Sometimes, one step forward goes to a bottomless abyss.

  Sometimes, illuminating the daylight, spring is boundless.

  It's easy to walk in clump of brambles, but difficult to turn round before screen of moonlight.

  In the square inch, how difficult the life at actual situation is!

  However, deep anxiety leads to enlightenment. The sense of anxiety can overwhelm all and conquer all.

 

「一念妄想。即是三界生死根本」:

不實、虛無,為煩惱痛苦的原因,叫做妄想。

釋迦牟尼佛在菩提樹下,證道後說:

「眾生皆具如來智慧德相,只因妄想執著,不能證得」。

因妄想必執著,執著一定在妄想中。人人都是佛,只因執著妄想、妄想執著,便不是佛了。

執著生死,不僅是凡夫,是最難解脫的妄想。

各位:這個世界上人死光,特別是自己死掉,是沒有太大關係的。

在形而上來說,無生無死也,所以莊子說:方生方死,方死方生,如此只有萬化,並無生死。

這個世界多一個人少一個人,多你少你,實在沒有什麼關係。

台灣報上有一欄,叫腦筋急轉彎。

問說:

蔣經國死了怎麼樣,沒死又怎麼樣?

答案是:

沒死,多一個人;死了,少一個人。

一點沒有錯。這個世界上沒有救世主,沒有救世主這個東西,誰說的?

黃:釋迦牟尼佛說的。

師:無受者,無作者。誰是你的救主?自己是自己的救主,所以要自覺!自己覺悟自己!誰是你的救主?是自己,就是儒家所說的:

自反而不縮

Any single delusion is the life force (the root of life and death) of the three realms;

  Unreality and nonentity are the cause of afflictions and suffering, which is called delusion.

  On his enlightenment under the Bodhi tree, Shakyamuni Buddha says:

  'Sentient beings are born with the virtue of Buddha's wisdom, but are unable to realize it due to delusion and attachment.'

  Delusion is sure to lead to attachment, and attachment is bound to delusion. All men are Buddhas; but because of delusion and attachment they are no longer Buddhas.

  Attachment to life and death is the cause of worldlings and the most difficult delusion.

  Everyone, it's all right that all men in the world die, in particular, you die.

  Metaphysically speaking, it's un-arising and un-perishing. Therefore Kwang-tze says: 'The very moment it arises, the very moment it perishes.' So there are only kinds of variations, rather than life and death.

  Indeed, one more or one less in the world, with or without you, don't make any sense.

  A section 'Brainteasers' in Taiwan newspaper asked: How if Ching-kuo Chiang had died? How if he hadn't died?

  The answer is: If he had died, there is one man more; if he hadn't died, there is one man less.

  Exactly. There is no redeemer in the world. who says?

  Dr Huang: Shakyamuni Buddha.

  Master: There are neither giver nor receiver. Who is your redeemer? You are your own redeemer. So be enlightened by yourself! Illuminate yourself! Who is your redeemer? Yourself. As Confucianism says:

be upright on self-examination

 

要念多少

莫作念的會計

「但無一念。即除生死根本。即得法王無上珍寶」:

    無甚麼念?黃博士,說一下。

黃:言語道斷,心行處滅。即此用,離此用,離此用,即此用。我本無心於萬物,何妨萬物常圍繞。

師:把阿賴耶識轉成大圓鏡智!轉八識成四智。把前五識轉為成所作智,把第六識轉為妙觀察智,把第七識轉為平等性智,第八識轉為大圓鏡智。但無一念,不是沒有念頭,不是整天昏沉無念,是無惡念。超越善惡,念而無念,無念而念,一念萬年,萬年一念。

「即得法王無上珍寶」。法王就是佛。就跟佛一樣。

真修行則愈修愈明。「無念」把它搞成沒有念頭,錯誤到了極點。你念甚麼準提咒,念甚麼阿彌陀佛,念了幾萬遍,南老師就講,你又不是會計,作那個幹甚麼。宇宙有多少「念」,你要念多少?

唐朝張拙說得好:

一念不生全體現,六根纔動被雲遮。

How many times to chant?

Don't be an accountant of chanting.

And once you have no mind, you have eliminated the life force, and obtained the peerless grail of the lord (the king of dharma).

  What mind? Dr. Huang, please clarify.

  Dr. Huang: Be speechless and non-concerning. Immanent in the function and beyond the function, beyond the function and immanent in the function. I am actually indifferent to anything, what harm is there surrounded by everything?

  Master: Transform alaya-vijnana into 'Great Reflecting Wisdom'. Transform the eight consciousnesses into the four kinds of wisdom. Transform the first five consciousnesses into 'Wisdom of Fulfillment of Deeds', transform the sixth consciousness into 'Subtle Observing Wisdom', transform the seventh consciousness into 'Wisdom of the Equality in Nature', and transform the eighth consciousness into 'Great Reflecting Wisdom'. No-mind is not depression without ideas, but without evil ideas. Further, beyond good and evil, mindfulness of no-mind, one mind of eternity.

... and obtained the peerless grail of the lord (the king of dharma). The king of dharma is the same to Buddha.

  If you are a true practitioner, the more you practice the more you are clarified. It's extremely wrong to take no-mind as no ideas. You have chanted Cundi Mantra or Amitabha Buddha for thousands times; but Master Nan had said: 'why do you do that as you are not an accountant?' There are so many ideas in the universe, and how many do you want to count?

  Zhuo Zhang in Tang Dynasty says well:

  The wholeness appears when no idea emerges; it's concealed by clouds the moment the Six Indriyas take effects.

 

「無量劫來。凡夫妄想。諂曲邪偽。我慢貢高。合為一體」:

無量劫來,從自己在無盡劫難中,有生命以來。有罪的眾生,即凡夫。妄想無已,全不實在。

「諂」,諂媚說假話,佛法講諂是垢〈藏汙納垢〉,諂是六垢之一。曲是歪,不正。邪,旁門左道。偽,虛假。

「慢,二十隨煩惱之一,就是只此一家,別無分店。

天下文章在三江,三江文章在我鄉,我鄉文章弟第一,弟弟向我學文章。

慢到極點。

《易經》講沒有一卦是好卦,只有謙卦才是好卦。

總而言之,慢是別人都不好,只有自己好;別人都不對,只有自己對。

那:

何年何月得解脫

From time immemorial, the worldlings' delusions like flattery, perversion, deceit, dishonesty, pride and arrogance are combined in one.

  From time immemorial, from the very beginning of your life in the endless suffering. Worldlings are sinful sentient beings. Boundless delusions are unreal.

  Flattery: blarney and trickery, one of the six defilements in Buddhism. Perversion: indecent, slanting. Deceit: heterodox doctrines. Dishonesty: false.

  Pride (Arrogance), one of the afflictions, like monopolization.

  The best writing in the world is in San-jiang, and the best writing in San-jiang is in my hometown; the best writing in my hometown is by my junior brother, who learned writing from me.

  This is the utmost of arrogance.

  The Iching says that no hexagram is good except the Modesty hexagram.

  In summary, arrogance is: all are not good except oneself, and all are wrong except oneself.

  In this way, whenever could we be liberated?

 

    待續

2013-11-09

達摩書院

To be continued.

2013.11.09

Dharma Academy