指月錄

張尚德講述

天儀記錄

魏盛英譯

馬祖道一禪師(一)

 

Book of Moon-directing

 

Lecturer: Shang-te Chang

Recorder: Tian-yi

Translator: Wei Sheng

 

Master Dao-yi, Patriarch Ma

Part I

 

人物

各位,告訴你們一個形容語句,是密宗中的密宗「中國的精神文明,禪門是最高峰。」

千萬千萬注意我這句話,把這句話聽進去。每一個真正的禪師從來都是不世出的。所以你們來這裡,不要說是來聽我上課,是一方面心嚮往之,一方面看看這些人究竟是怎麼樣過日子的,這點好重要。他們怎樣過日子?超天!超地!超人!超物!更妙的是,大部分〈有百分之九十〉他們的出身都很低,然後,他們都超天超地超人超物,超一切,又在一切中!若沒有這個認識,你根本無法看懂禪門文獻,根本不懂他在搞甚麼。這些人物,從相來講,有好幾種。一種是清,如唐太宗描述唐玄奘:

「松風水月,未足比其清華;

仙露明珠,詎能方其朗潤。」

清的反面是濁,以及奇與怪〈二者不同〉,種種不同的角色。他們為何可以超越一切人事物?凡夫眾生是在「識」上,而超越人事物的禪門人物絕對是在超越的「智慧」上。怎麼在超越的智慧上,這就涉及到唯識了。

The Figures

  Everyone. Let me tell you a semantic sentence, which is the occult of occults: Zen is the apex of Chinese spiritual civilization.

  Make sure to pay attention to this sentence and hear to it. Each true Zen Master has always been extraordinary. So your presence here, rather than taking my lecture, is due to your aspiration as well as your curiosity to see how actually these people live, which is pretty important. How do they live? Transcending heaven and earth, people and things. It is even marvelous that majority (ninety percent) of them are of humble origins, while they all transcend everything and are also immanent in everything! Without this insight, you can hardly comprehend Zen scriptures nor understand what they are doing. These figures are in manifold features. The first is Purity, as the description of Master Xuan-zang by Emperor Tai-zong Tang:

  His purity and nobility exceed the cedar in winds and the moon in water;

  His elegance and grace surpass the fairy dewdrops and the bright pearls.

  In opposite to Purity, is Muddiness; and also, Wonder and Oddity, various characteristics. Why can they transcend all people, things and events? Worldlings rely on consciousness, while Zen figures transcending all people, things and events are absolutely with transcendent wisdom. How to be with wisdom involves the consciousness-centered theory (Vijnapti-matrata).

 

六根〈眼耳鼻舌身意〉的根根落在六塵〈色聲香味觸法〉上為識,識不是個甚麼東西,是個名詞,它和六根六塵發生絕對的關係,沒有六根六塵絕對就沒有識。當然,只要是眾生,永遠是有六根〈主觀〉的;客觀的,阿陀那識化為塵,是永久的;如《楞嚴經》所述「隨眾生心,應所知量,循業發現。」所以,他們就是有這個工夫這個修養,讓眼耳鼻舌身意六根不落在色聲香味觸法六塵上,他能遮掉六塵。所以,超越識不需要說的,他們的語言根本沒有這些。今天,挑了《指月錄》中這段,了解一下馬祖道一禪師是如何表現出禪門人物了不起的風範。為著了解的方便,我們先唸一遍,再來做要點的解釋。

Consciousness

  Consciousness is the conformity of roots of the Six Indriyas (internal bases: eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind) with the Six Dusts (external bases: sight, sound, scent, taste, tangibles and dharma), nothing but a noun, in certain relationship to the Six Indriyas and the Six Dusts. Without the Six Indriyas and the Six Dusts there is no consciousness. Of course, all the sentient beings always have the six Indriyas (subjective), and the six Dusts (objective) transformed by the Adana-vijnana, as the Shurangama Sutra said: 'Beings' minds absorb it according to their capacity to know. whatever manifests does so in compliance with karma.' So they really have the expertise and cultivation to separate the Six Indriyas from the Six Dusts, to mask the Six Dusts. Therefore it’s unnecessary for them to talk about the transcendence of consciousness. Today we extract this paragraph from the Book of Moon-directing, to understand how Master Dao-yi, Patriarch Ma, displayed the extraordinary style of Zen figures. To facilitate your understanding, we read the paragraph first, and then interpret in details.

 

原文

馬祖道一禪師。漢州什邡縣人。姓馬氏。故俗稱馬祖。或云馬大師。容貌奇異。牛行虎視。引舌過鼻。足下有二輪文。幼歲於本邑羅漢寺出家。受具於渝州圓律師。 開元中。習定於衡嶽。遇讓和尚。發明大事。同參六人。惟師密授心印。始居建陽佛迹嶺。遷於臨川。次至南康龔公山。大曆中。連帥路嗣恭。請師開法。四方學者。雲集座下 僧問。和尚為甚麼說即心即佛。曰為止小兒啼。曰啼止時如何。師曰。非心非佛。曰除此二種人來。如何指示。師曰。向伊道不是物。曰忽遇其中人來時如何。曰且教伊體會大道。僧問。離四句絕百非。請師直指西來意。師曰。我今日勞倦。不能為汝說。問取智藏去。……師於貞元四年正月中。登建昌石門山。於林中經行。見洞壑平坦。謂侍者曰。吾之朽質。當於來月歸茲地矣。及歸遂示疾。院主問。和尚近日尊候如何。師曰。日面佛月面佛。二月一日。沐浴跏趺入滅。世壽八十。僧臘六十。元和中。追諡大寂禪師。

Original Text

  Master Dao-yi, Patriarch Ma, was born at Shi-fang county, Han state. He was known as Patriarch Ma, or Grandmaster Ma, with the family name Ma. The singularity of his appearance comprised bull walking, tiger glaring, and two wheel patterns on the bottoms of feet. When he was young he renounced the secular life at local Arhat Temple, and received precepts from Preceptor Yuan of Yu state. During Kai-yuan reign, he practiced meditation on Mountain Heng, and was enlightened by Abbot (Huai)-Rang, as the only approved heir among all six fellows. At first, he settled on Hill Fo-ji at Jian-yang, transferred to Lin-chuan, and then to Hill Gong-gong at Nan-kang. During Da-li reign, Marshal Lu Si-gong asked the master to give lectures, and learners all sides massed there.

  A monk asked: 'Why do you abbot say that Heart is the same to Buddha?' The master said: 'To stop children crying.' The monk asked:'How if crying stopped?' The master said: 'Neither Heart nor Buddha.' The monk asked: 'Besides these two kinds of people, how do you instruct other people?' The master said: 'Tell him it's not anything.' The monk asked: ' How about an insider?' The master said: 'Then instruct him to realize the Tao.' The monk asked: 'Without the four phrases and the hundred negations, may you please directly point out the meaning of (Patriarch's) coming from the west?' The master said: 'I am tired today, and unable to tell you. Ask Zhi-zang (a student of the master).'

  In January Zhen-yuan IV (788 AD), the master went on Hill Shi-men at Jian-chang. He walked around a grave, saw a flat cave, and told his acolyte: 'My body in senescence will be buried here next month.' When returned he fell ill. The Chancellor asked: 'How are you abbot recently?' The master said: 'I see Buddhas all the time.' On February 1st, he took a bath, sat cross-legged and passed away, at the age of 80, with 60 years as a Buddhist. During Yuan-he reign, he was posthumously entitled 'Master of Nirvana'.

 

了生死

馬大師這一篇,實際上把整個佛法都講完了,做一個禪門的修行者嚮往者就這個樣子。了生脫死,生很難,孔子說「未知生,焉知死」。莊子講「善吾生者,乃所以善吾死也」。文中最後一段,正月中他到一個地方,看了之後說,將來我死了可以葬在這個地方,然後二月一號,兩腿一盤,他走了!

這是本事,所以學是學這個。學禪是絕對的機靈、絕對的靈敏、絕對的要怎麼樣就可以怎麼樣。所以不要說是上課,不要隨著我語言走,每一個禪師都是大人物,讀他們的故事,要想總有一生一世也做到像他一樣。

Transcending life and death

  Actually the whole Buddhism is covered in this paragraph of Grandmaster Ma, as a typical Zen dreamer and practitioner. Transcending life and death, but it is very difficult to transcend life. As Confucius said: 'While you do not know life, how can you know about death?' And Kwang-tze said: 'What makes my life a good makes my death also a good.' In the last section of the paragraph, he went somewhere in January, looked over and said, 'I can be buried here in the future', and then on February 1st, he sat cross-legged and passed away!

  This is the feat that we should learn. Learning Zen is absolutely smart, sensitive, and able to follow what the heart desires. Therefore, rather than taking lectures and following my words, you read the stories of Zen Masters, each of which is great figure, and dream of being like them someday.

 

奇相

Pass

江西道一禪師。漢州什邡縣人。姓馬氏。故俗稱馬祖。或又云馬大師。容貌奇異。牛行虎視。引舌過鼻。足下有二輪文。

    道一禪師,四川人。關於禪門地名,可以參看《禪門人物地籍考》一書。這當然重要也不重要,不重要也重要。中國黃河以北很少出禪師,這與氣候等等有關。從人文來講,禪門人物是文采的最高峰。莊子哲學道學人物以南方比較多,儒家孔子孟子表現出來的是厚。比較起來,禪門人物是南方,北方很少出現禪門人物,中國未來以後怎樣就不知道。

相很奇特。牛行虎視。牛行,走路是牛步。這涉及骨骼,人走路時腳跟落下去的狀樣與整個身體的各個系統有關。虎視,眼睛看。動物最高的心一境性叫做虎視。虎視眈眈。足下有二輪文。大家靜坐時可以想想馬祖是個甚麼容貌。人的足與手有輪文,人第一層是皮膚與汗毛,與整個內部器官內分泌統統有關係,然後表現出紋路。手和腳的紋路表現出人的種種的奇特性。有一書《人體》可以找來看。

其中也講到腦部。大禪師為什麼能夠那麼遮?大禪師面對人事物有一個最重要的特質,亦是本事,就是PASS!上週講七佛中的第四佛時講到肉體不實,我們證到肉體不實,證到心理虛幻,就是佛。人體腦部細胞全身細胞究竟有多少,現在醫學不知道。各個細胞本身機能不一樣,有的即生即滅,有的經過一段時間等等。彌勒菩薩說我們腦有三十二億剎那,一彈指一剎那,細識把剎那分三十二階段,莊子講至大無外至小無內,腦子小到一剎那分三十二億,事實上還不只,禪師比電子還要快,你把這個本事搞出來,PASSPASSPASS都沒有!人生在世,PASS也。

Singularity of Appearance

Pass

  Master Dao-yi, Patriarch Ma, was born at Shi-fang county, Han state. He was known as Patriarch Ma, or Grandmaster Ma, with the family name Ma. The singularity of his appearance comprised bull walking, tiger glaring, and two wheel patterns on the bottoms of feet.

  Master Dao-yi was born in Si-chuan Province. For place names of Zen School, you may refer to the book Research on Domiciles of Zen Figures; certainly it is both important and unimportant. There has been few Zen masters north of the Yellow river in China, due to conditions such as climate. From a humanistic perspective, Zen figures are of the apex of culture. Taoist figures like Kwang-tze mostly distributed in the south, while Confucian figures like Confucius and Mencius displayed magnanimity (in the north). Generally, Zen figures were in the south and rare in the north. It is unknown what would be like in the future in China.

  The singularity of his appearance comprised bull walking and tiger glaring. Bull walking, his walking was like a bull, related to his bones, as the personal appearance of laying of the heels is related to all systems of the whole body. Tiger glaring, gazing with eyes, is the highest concentration of animals, glaring like a tiger. There were two wheel patterns on the bottoms of feet. When you meditate, you may think over Patriarch Ma's appearance. The surface layer of man, skin with hairs, relates to all the internal organs and the endocrine system, and displays patterns that represent personal singularity. You may refer to the book Human Body.

  It also refers to brain. How can the grandmasters mask? The most significant feature and feat of the grandmasters in face of people, things and events is to PASS! In the last lecture, according to the fourth Buddha of the Seven Buddhas, it is exactly Buddha to realize that the body is insubstantial and the mind is illusionary. Modern Medicine is unaware of the accurate number of cells in the brain and in the whole body. The functions of various cells are multiple; some are transient, some are persistent. Maitreya Bodhisattva said that there are 3.2 billion instants in our brain during a fillip, that the subtle consciousness divides a fillip into 3.2 billion instants. Kwang-tze said: 'That which is so great that there is nothing outside..., and that which is so small that there is nothing inside...', and the brain is small enough to be divided by 3.2 billion! Actually Zen Master is even faster, faster than electrons. You should get this feat. PASS! PASS! Even No PASS! Human life in the world is passing.

 

開悟

幼歲於本邑羅漢寺出家。受具於渝州圓律師。開元中。習定於衡嶽。遇讓和尚。發明大事。

馬祖道一幼時出家,受具足戒於渝州圓律師。真正的禪師,無論出家在家,有無受具足戒,沒有一個在道德上、在良心上,會對人事物有所侵犯。

開元,指中唐。六祖屬盛唐,臨濟宗屬晚唐,到宋元逐漸萎縮,現在影子也無。習定於南嶽衡山。遇懷讓禪師。發明大事,指大澈大悟。大澈大悟有三個條件,

一、過去世修來的,

二、對人事物不侵犯,

三、修定。

沒有定怎可能悟。悟到甚麼呢?後面都一五一十展示出來。

Enlightenment

  When he was young he renounced the secular life at local Arhat Temple, and received precepts from Preceptor Yuan of Yu state. During Kai-yuan reign, he practiced meditation on Mountain Heng, and was enlightened by Abbot (Huai)-Rang...

  Dao-yi, Patriarch Ma, renounced the secular life when he was young, and received full precepts from Preceptor Yuan of Yu state. None of the true Zen Masters would offend against morality and conscience on people, things and events.

  Kai-yuan was in the middle Tang Dynasty; the Sixth Patriarch was in the glorious age of Tang Dynasty; the Lin-Ji School (born) in the later Tang Dynasty, declined in Song and Yuan Dynasties, and turns out to be shadowless now. He practiced meditation on Mountain Heng, and was enlightened by Abbot (Huai)-Rang, that was, the Grand Enlightenment. There are three requirements for the Grand Enlightenment:

  1. Cultivation in the previous incarnations;

  2. No offence to people, things and events;

  3. Practicing Meditation.

  Without Meditation there is no enlightenment. What is enlightened? It will be revealed in full detail below.

同叅六人。惟師密授心印。始居建陽佛迹嶺。遷於臨川。次至南康龔公山。

禪宗法脈傳承,初祖達摩,二祖慧可,三祖僧璨,四祖道信,五祖弘忍,六祖惠能。這個表往前推,達摩是二十八祖,之前還有二十七祖。禪系很重要,禪門絕對是講傳承的。

  ...as the only approved heir among all six fellows. At first, he settled on Hill Fo-ji at Jian-yang, transferred to Lin-chuan, and then to Hill Gong-gong at Nan-kang.

  The dharma-lineage of Zen School (in China): the First Patriarch Bodhidharma, the Second Patriarch Hui-ke, the Third Patriarch Monk-Can, the Fourth Patriarch Dao-xin, the Fifth Patriarch Hong-ren, the Sixth Patriarch Hui-neng. In the anterior lineage (in India), Bodhidharma was the twenty-eighth Patriarch, and there were twenty-seven Patriarchs ahead of him. The Zen lineage is very important, and Zen School definitely treasures the lineage.

 

心與佛

大曆中。連帥路嗣恭。請師開法。四方學者。雲集座下。僧問。和尚。為什麼說即心即佛。

曰。為止小兒啼。

    開講傳法,四方雲集。為什麼即心即佛?釋迦牟尼佛說法四十九年,沒有說一個字,拿著黃葉止兒啼!「心」,佛法所說的這個心,不是我們現在所說的這個肉體的心,更不是我們現在所說的心理的心。完全不是。三界唯心,萬法唯識。佛法所說的心,是指我們自己過去現在未來全體存在的那個,叫做心。因此,相對於我們現在的感官的認識也好,理性推理包括邏輯、數學、科學、哲學也好,包括美學直觀或辯證法也好,宗教信仰也好,包括語言在內一切等等,都是不確定的,都是因緣所生法,因為不確定,所以二祖神光要達摩幫助找心,結果覓心了不可得,所以心無常,相對於凡夫眾生,心是無常的,所以佛法所說的心,不是這個心。這裡講即心即佛為止小兒啼,他否定即心即佛,但也沒有肯定也沒有否定,是雙重的,既肯定,又否定。下面就講非心非佛。

曰。啼止時如何。

師曰。非心非佛。

    小孩不哭了,怎麼樣?非心非佛,不是心不是佛。禪門語句有幾層:第一層肯定,第二層否定,第三層又肯定又否定,第四層又不肯定又不否定,第五層把前四層統一又超越,最後一層,把比喻的象徵的事物放在裡面,在比喻象徵的語句堶情A常常是用沒有任何意義的語句語言和行為行動來做表達,特別是唐宋的禪門有這幾層。所以我在年輕時,讀《金剛經》發現這些,就寫了〈金剛經的思想結構〉,談這方面的問題。若不了解這幾層,根本無法了解禪門祖師語錄,你根本不知道他在講甚麼。

Heart and Buddha

  During Da-li reign, Marshal Lu Si-gong asked the master to give lectures, and learners all sides massed there. A monk asked: 'Why do you abbot say that Heart is the same to Buddha?' The master said: 'To stop children crying.'

  He gave lectures and learners all sides massed. Why is the Heart the same to Buddha? Sakyamuni Buddha did not say a word during forty-nine years' lectures, but stopped children crying with yellow leaves! Heart, the Heart in Buddhism is neither the physical heart nor the mental mind, absolutely not. The Heart in Buddhism implicates our wholeness in the past, present and future. Therefore, with regard to our sensory perceptions, rational inferences such as logic, mathematics, sciences and philosophies, aesthetic intuitions and dialectics, religious beliefs, as well as languages, all of these are uncertain, and are contingently related. Because they are uncertain, the Second Patriarch Shen-guang (Hui-ke's original name) asked Bodhidharma to help to find the Heart, and finally found it unobtainable. So for worldlings, heart is impermanent, which is not the Heart in Buddhism. Here he said that 'Heart is the same to Buddha' to stop children crying, but immediately he negated that 'Heart is the same to Buddha'. Actually it is neither affirmation nor negation; it is paradoxical, also both affirmation and negation.

  The monk asked:'How if crying stopped?' The master said: 'Neither Heart nor Buddha.'

  How if the children stopped crying? Neither Heart nor Buddha. It is neither Heart nor Buddha. There are several layers in Zen sentences: first, affirmation; second, negation; third, both affirmation and negation; fourth, neither affirmation nor negation; fifth, unity of the four layers and transcending the four layers; and last, symbolic metaphors, usually expressed in nonsense sentences and actions, especially for Zen School in Tang and Song Dynasties. Therefore in my early years, I found these in reading the Diamond Sutra, and wrote the Ideological Structure of the Diamond Sutra to discuss these problems. Without understanding of these layers, you can neither understand the analects of Zen master, nor realize what he was talking about.

 

不是物

曰。除此二種人來。如何指示。

師曰。向伊道不是物。

    不是物,甚麼都不是。六祖怎麼說?本來無一物,何處惹塵埃。本來無一物究竟是甚麼,有個問題了,我們現在活著本來就是物。為什麼又不是物?有個更大的問題,死後究竟到哪裡去。

It is not anything.

  The monk asked: 'Besides these two kinds of people, how do you instruct other people?' The master said: 'Tell him it's not anything.'

  It is not anything, it is nothing. How did the Sixth Patriarch say? 'Originally there is not a single thing: where can dust alight?' What is on earth that 'Originally there is not a single thing?' Here is a problem: we are now alive, originally something. Why not anything? Here is a further problem: where on earth do we go after death?

 

中陰

黃高証,就你所知道的佛法資料,依你的理解,自佛法上來講,死後究竟到哪裡去。

黃:人死後,為中陰身,若是生前善業功德大的,立刻昇天,造惡業大的立刻到地獄,處於中陰身的時間非常短。大部分人在七七四十九天內,回到六道媊~續輪迴;大菩薩是例外,生前已來去自如超越肉體;佛則歸到法身,在常寂光中常樂我淨。

師:六道輪迴和常寂光在哪裡,你要交代清楚。

黃:六道是指地獄、餓鬼、畜生、人道,阿修羅;再加上欲界天,這幾部分是在欲界堶情F天分為欲界、色界、無色界三種天,在欲界天上有色界天,色界天上有無色界天。再說常寂光,常寂光在哪裡呢?佛的佛土略分為四,常寂光土、實報莊嚴土、方便有餘土、凡聖同居土。常寂光指在法身境界常寂光土中,無所在,無所不在。

師:倒還可以啦!對啊!

Intermediate Existence

Dr. Huang, based on Buddhist literatures you have read, and according to your understanding of Buddhism, where on earth do we go after death?

  Dr. Huang: There will be intermediate existences after death. People with great merits of good karma will immediately rise to Heaven, while those with great evil karma will immediately fall into Hell, of which the duration of intermediate existences is transient. Majority people will reincarnate in the six Directions within forty nine days. Bodhisattvas are exceptional that they have already transcend the physical bodies and are free to come and go. Buddha will return to Dharma Body, in the Light of Holy Silence, with (Four Virtues of) eternity, joy, personality and purity.

Master: Where are the six Directions of Reincarnation and the Light of Holy Silence? Please clarify.

  Dr. Huang: The six Directions refer to: Hell, Hungry Ghost, Animal, Human, Asura, and devas in the desire realm, which compose the desire realm; Heaven consists of devas in the desire realm, the form realm and the formless realm, and there are form devas above devas in the desire realm, and formless devas above the form devas. As to the Light of Holy Silence, where is the Light of Holy Silence? The Pure Lands of Buddha are comprised of four: Light of Holy Silence, Majestic Retribution, Expedient with Residue, Cohabitation of Worldling and Sage. The Light of Holy Silence implicates the Pure Land of the Light of Holy Silence in the realm of Dharma Body, nowhere, and everywhere.

Master: Fine. Right.

 

大道

曰。忽遇其中人來時如何。

曰。且教伊體會大道。

    大道,歸到總題。大道是甚麼?三祖僧璨〈信心銘〉:「至道無難,唯嫌撿擇。」

絕對的不撿擇,就是絕對的不分別,叫做大道。那是八地菩薩的境界、修持和果位,即已了掉所知障了。各位來這裡,好好為下輩子集一點智慧的資糧。

The Grand Tao

  The monk asked: ' How about an insider?' The master said: 'Then instruct him to realize the Tao.'

  Tao, reverted to the general topic. What is Tao? The Third Patriarch Monk-Can said (the Faith Verse): 'The Grand Tao is not difficult, if only you are not picky.'

  It is never picky, never discriminating, that is called Grand Tao. That is the realm, cultivation and accomplishment of Bodhisattvas in the eighth stage, who have eliminate the noetic hindrances. Coming here, You’d better make efforts on your accumulation of wisdom for the next incubation.

 

西來意

僧問。離四句。絕百非。請師直指西來意。

師曰。我今日勞倦。不能為汝說。問取智藏去。

四句是哪四句?到處都是四句。《金剛經》最重要就是開頭所說的:「善男子善女人,發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心,應如是住,如是其心」,也是四句。就是要善、要發心、然後絕對要相信最後面四句結論:

「一切有為法,如夢幻泡影,如露亦如電,應作如是觀。」

凡存在,凡相,即有為法;任何存在,任何相,都是有為法;如夢幻泡影,不實在。你抓著有為法,就違背了《金剛經》和一切大乘經典,就違背了相信佛。但人天天在抓有為法,生生世世陷在有為法堶情A問題在這裡。一定要相信、一定要去實現、一定要把「一切有為法,如夢幻泡影,如露亦如電」這三句抓得緊緊的,不要抓有為法了。你不得不在有為法中,但要「六根才動被雲遮」,應作如是觀。你不得不在有為法中,千萬不要抓它,如何不抓,就是上堂講的「PASSPASS」,除PASS外絕對無第二法。有事即不得,有事即不是。人天天都在人事物中,那就看你如何PASS。一切人事物的表達、實現、過程,都在這四句堶情A都在是是非非堶情C他如何回答離四句絕百非,馬祖道一回答:

「對不起,我今天累,不能為你說,你去問智藏。」

回答的真好,馬祖就是馬祖。離四句絕百非,祖師西來意,甚麼祖師西來意,祖師沒有甚麼意!馬祖很客氣,他說我很累,你去問智藏好了。

我這邊無西來意

The meaning of (Patriarch's) coming from the west

  The monk asked: 'Without the four phrases and the hundred negations, may you please straight direct the meaning of (Patriarch's) coming from the west?' The master said: 'I am tired today, and unable to tell you. Ask Zhi-zang (a student of the master).'

  Which four phrases? There are four phrases everywhere. The most important in the Diamond Sutra at the beginning: 'A good man or good woman who resolves his mind on Anuttarasamyaksambodhi should thus rely and thus subdue his mind', is also in four phrases. You should be good, you should intent, and you should absolutely believe the final conclusion in four phrases:

  'All conditioned dharmas Are like a dream, an illusion, a bubble or a shadow, Like dew or like a lightning flash. Contemplate them thus.'

  All existences and all forms are conditioned dharmas; any existence and any form are conditioned dharmas, insubstantial, like a dream, an illusion, a bubble or a shadow. If you grasp the conditioned dharmas, you violate the Diamond Sutra and all Mahayana Sutras, and you violate the belief in Buddha. But the problem is that people grasp the conditioned dharmas everyday, and are immersed in the conditioned dharmas generation after generation. Instead of grasping the conditioned dharmas, you must believe, practice, and grasp the three phrases that 'All conditioned dharmas Are like a dream, an illusion, a bubble or a shadow, Like dew or like a lightning flash.' You have to be in the conditioned dharmas, but you should contemplate that 'it is masked by cloud upon the action of the six Indriyas'. You have to be in the conditioned dharmas, but never grasp it. How do you not grasp it? The answer is the aforementioned PASS. There is nothing beyond PASS. If there is anything, it is not done; if there is anything, it is not right. We are within people, events and things everyday, and it is up to you to pass. All the expression, realization and process of people, events and things are in the four phrases, in right and wrong. How did he reply without the four phrases and the hundred negations? Dao-yi, Patriarch Ma, replied:

  'Excuse me, I am tired today, and unable to tell you. You may ask Zhi-zang.'

  What a brilliant reply! Such was Patriarch Ma! Without the four phrases and the hundred negations, the meaning of Patriarch's coming from the west, what's the meaning of Patriarch's coming from the west, there is no meaning by Patriarch! Patriarch Ma was polite, as he said that 'I am tired, and you'd better ask Zhi-zang.'

To me, there is no meaning of (Patriarch's) coming from the west.

 

(以下是訪客李老先生問與答)

The following is a record of questions which were asked by an elderly visitor Mr. Li and were answered by Master Chang.

李發強先生問

身心靈

李老先生問:多年前曾在此做過禪七,之後領悟的非常之少,近年以來因為年紀大了,想到人是怎麼來的,要怎麼去,去來之間應做些甚麼事情,因此想到身心靈的問題。想到兩首詩:

「終日尋春不見春,芒鞋踏破嶺頭雲,

歸來偶把梅花嗅,春在枝頭已十分。」

蘇東坡的

「橫看成嶺側成峰,遠近高低各不同,

不識廬山真面目,只緣身在此山中。」

所以特此上山求道,希望大師告訴我甚麼叫做身心靈。

張老師答:釋迦牟尼佛說沒有這個問題。沒有你說的身心靈這個問題。你沒有投胎變為人之前,你在哪裡?釋迦牟尼佛說,叫做阿賴耶識。投胎之後呢?是凡夫,帶著煩惱與痛苦。若在一生中解決不了煩惱與痛苦,就要永遠一直投胎下去。怎樣解決煩惱痛苦?怎樣才沒有煩惱痛苦?一句話:絕對做好事不做壞事!要看三部小書:《佛說入胎經》,《百法明門論》,和佛洛依德的《性學三論》。你的問題我已經回答你了。實際上,稍微轉一下,你沒有這個問題了。我們今晚講,大禪師有一個了不得的本事就是──PASS PASS還不是放下,PASS實際上是腦部功能的作用。蔣介石和毛澤東都有這個本事。真正禪門人物沒有身心靈這個問題,走了就走了。抓著「PASS」,甚麼事都沒有了。

許淑晨你起來跟李老師講一講。我休息一下。

許淑晨:李伯伯,歡迎您來書院。李伯伯您可能研究這個很久了。您今晚問老師有關身心靈的問題,釋迦牟尼佛說沒有這個問題,這對我們禪門是有很深刻的內涵。 生命的呈現是從一個無形的能量,佛家稱第八阿賴耶識。剛剛老師推薦您三本書。第一本是佛陀所說我們是如何進入母親如何受孕的,為何跟這個母親而不跟那個母 親,這有複雜的因素。第二本,我們人生出來以後,釋迦牟尼佛把它總的歸納成一百種煩惱,這一百種煩惱代表我們生命的各個作用。第三本,偏向於西方哲學對人 的本性的探求。

張老師:即佛家所說的第七識,末那識,緊緊抓自己,死也不放的情執。

許淑晨:老師建議您三本書一起參究,可能就能了解我們去來的一個始末。老師剛才跟您提到的PASS的問題,當然已到了所謂形而下,就是說我們從母親生下來以後,有腦有心,剛提到腦的功能,佛說的都有真憑實據而非隨便說的,彌勒菩薩說的一剎那非常短暫,一彈指就有三十二億腦部的波動,老師認為尚不止此數,與整個肉體有關,這是要進入甚深禪定,是境界有關的問題。所以老師為何說PASS 你看一彈指間有三十二億腦波的震動,因此我們很難看清楚剎那間腦部的真正作用,所以腦部這個醫學還有待於我們的探求。譬如說我們人為何這麼聰明,甚至是人經過禪定可以與外界聲波光波接引,所以腦的神祕性還沒有被完全開發,老師希望你不要被身心靈這個念頭困住,把這個念頭丟掉。

張老師:真正禪門人物沒有這個問題,說走就走了。你能夠PASS,什麼事都沒有了。

Questions by Mr. Li Fa-qiang

Body, Mind and Spirit

Mr. Li: I attended a seven-day retreat here many years ago, but made little progress in enlightenment afterwards. Recently as in age, thinking of how people come, how people go, and what to do between coming and going, I recall the problem of Body, Mind and Spirit. There are two poetries:

Seeking for Spring in vain all day,

My straw shoes have trampled clouds on the mountain.

Coming back and sniffing at the plum blossom occasionally,

Spring has been perfect on the branch already.

  And the other one by Su Dong-po:

Horizontally viewed as a ridge and laterally a summit,

the Mountain Lu varied with distance and height.

Ignorant to its true features,

as we are right in it.

  Therefore, I go up the hill to ask for instruction, and expect that Master can tell me about Body, Mind and Spirit.

Master: Sakyamuni Buddha said that there is no such a problem, about Body, Mind and Spirit. Where were you before your incarnation as human? Sakyamuni Buddha said that it is Alaya-vijnana. How about after your incarnation? Worldlings with afflictions and sufferings. If you cannot resolve afflictions and sufferings in a lifetime, you have to incarnate forever. How to resolve afflictions and sufferings? How to be without afflictions and sufferings? One word: be absolutely good but not bad. You should read three booklets: Buddha spoken Incarnation Sutra, Shastra on the Door to Understanding the Hundred Dharmas, and Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality by Freud. I have answered your problem. In fact, if you turn around slightly, you will be all right. We have said tonight that grandmasters have an extraordinary feat of PASS. PASS, rather than cast off, is actually the effect of brain function, possessed by both Mao Ze-dong and Chiang Kai-Shek. True Zen figures are indifferent to the problem of Body, Mind and Spirit, as to go is just to go. With PASS everything is all right.

  Ms. Xu, please clarify for Mr. Li. Let me have a rest.

  Ms. Xu: You are advised to research the three book together to understand the whole story of our coming and going. The problem of PASS, certainly of physical world, refers to the brain function after our birth. What Buddha spoken are not casual but true facts. The instant said by Maitreya Bodhisattva is highly transient, and there are 3.2 billion instants of brain waves in a fillip. According to Master, it is related to the whole body, as well as the realm of deep meditation. Therefore we can hardly see through the real effect of brain in instants, as the Brain Medicine remains elusive, for example, the reason that we humans are smart, and the conformity of meditating humans with external sound and light waves. So the mystery of brain is far from understanding, and Master hopes for your redemption from the thought of Body, Mind and Spirit, for your desertion of that thought.

Master: True Zen figures are indifferent to this problem, as to go is just to go. With PASS everything is all right.

 

李老先生:謝謝剛剛這位小姐解釋身心靈的問題。我境界不夠,我從向個人請教、圖書館請教、外行人請教、專家請教,說法幾乎完全不一致。我找佛教辭典看身心靈怎麼解釋,結果它只談身心,靈是另外的,不談在一起。又請問一位藏傳佛教喇嘛,他給我一個說法,他說佛講身,講心,不講靈,他講很多我體會不到。聽到陳履安先生演講講身心靈,他兩個孩子是信藏傳佛教;在書店看了很多書,講身心靈,發現不僅一般人有這個感覺,宗教中基督教、佛教也談身心靈,哲學、醫學〈許添盛原為醫生,現專門講身心靈〉、科學也談身心靈,但他們所說的,我的感覺是:佛學說的是高一階層的,醫學是談健康,文化談身心靈是談和諧,因此我把這些問喇嘛,請他可否綜合給我一個意義,什麼是身心靈。請教喇嘛,佛法說諸法無我,諸行無常,究竟有沒有我。他說:一般我他都是存在的,佛學理論則的確沒有我的存在。愈聽愈糊塗,所以請張大師給我開示。

張老師:還有甚麼問題?

李:一大堆,請你開示。

張:剛才不是已經開示。

李:開示,但我還沒悟。

張:還沒悟,等下就悟了。

李:悟需境界,悟很難,如果一個人馬上可以頓悟,大概沒有煩惱,不需要解脫。

但許多人面對人生五毒貪嗔癡慢疑,我們今天是從佛學觀念來看問題,我最近看的書不下二十種以上。

張:美秀,把這個資料給大家唸一唸,把資料給他。

劉美秀:釋迦牟尼說的,語言、文字、意識不為真,害死人。

Mr. Li: I thank this lady for addressing the problem of Body, Mind and Spirit. I am unfamiliar with the realms. Answers from people, library, outsiders, experts are never identical: Buddhism dictionary talks about body and mind, while spirit is separated; and according to a Tibetan Lama, Buddhism talks about Body and Mind, but not Spirit, many of which I cannot experience. On the basis of a lecture on Body, Mind and Spirit by Mr. Chen Lv-an, whose two children practice Tibetan Buddhism, and many books on Body, Mind and Spirit in the bookstore, I find that besides ordinary people, religions like Christianity and Buddhism, philosophies, medicines (e.g., Dr. Xu Tian-sheng) and sciences also talk about Body, Mind and Spirit. My understanding is that Buddhism is higher, while Medicine is on health and Culture is on harmony. Therefore I asked the Lama for a comprehensive concept on Body, Mind and Spirit; I also asked the Lama whether there is the atman, as according to Buddhism, all things are in a state of incessant change, and all things lack inherent identity. The Lama said there is atman for worldlings, but not in Buddhism. The more I listen the more I am confused. So please instruct me, Master Zhang.

Master Chang: What else?

Li: A plenty. Please instruct me.

Chang: I have.

Li: Yes, but I am not enlightened yet.

Chang: You will be enlightened soon.

Li: Enlightenment requires realms, and thus is difficult. If a man is enlightened instantly, there would be no affiliation nor need for redemption.

However, many people are in face of five poisons of life: greed, hatred, ignorance, arrogance, and doubt. Today we are from the Buddhist perspective. I have read more than twenty books recently.

Chang: Ms. Liu, please read this material for us. Give him a copy.

Ms Liu: Sakyamuni Buddha said that languages, words and consciousnesses are not true, and they kill.

 

張:釋迦牟尼說,語言文字意識不是真的,害死人。你接到,你悟了;你沒有接到,還是沒有悟;就這麼簡單。

他們相信,所以他們沒有事了,他們在學習大禪師怎樣能夠沒有語言、可以說走就走那麼瀟灑,一點事都沒有。最難處理的是盲目意識的投胎,意識昏沉,就是阿陀那識,就是阿賴耶識開始發動,第一個叫做作意,英文叫making idea,你真的要了解自己,你要從頭開始。你問到這裡,實際上已經整個答覆你了。孔子也是這麼說的,孔子說要正名。

李:說到孔子,我講一個孔子故事。

張:你講嘛。

李老先生講孔子門生與認「真」的故事:

據說孔子周遊列國的時候,帶著子路一起。有一天碰到土匪,土匪看他是老師,就寫了一個字給他認,就是剛剛講到文字語言意識不為真的真字。孔子說,我的學生去就可以了,就叫子路去。子路去認,說這個很簡單,是個真字。土匪說,你認錯了,還是要你老師來。孔子說,不必,再派第二個學生去。這個學生去了一看,說:這是個真字,沒有假。土匪說也認錯了,還是要老師來。老師看了這個真字,上面直,下面八,就說:這個字我認得,是直八。關鍵就在這一點,直八,孔子也有不認真的時候。

張:孔子沒有錯嘛。南老師的《論語別裁》是蔣介石和蔣經國到台灣,王昇和蕭政之先生要南老師講《論語別裁》。印了一百萬本,送到軍中和各大學。南老師到了大陸,第一個打開大陸大門的是《論語別裁》。《論語》第一句話「學而時習之,不亦樂乎」,就是佛法所說的──超時間、超空間、徧學一切法。「時習之」,隨時隨地要去實現。孔子說的全對,但是,沒有一個能做到。從秦始皇開始,社會亂了,就殺孔子;一旦穩定些了,有了,又捧孔子,就這麼搞。中國狗屁歷史哲學,天下合久必分、分久必合,這樣搞來搞去,一部水滸傳、一部三國演義,就把中國搞得亂個不停。中國幾千年好可憐喔,不上軌道,只知搞意識、搞觀念、搞語言、搞水滸和三國演義也。

Chang: Sakyamuni Buddha said that languages, words and consciousnesses are not true, and they kill. If you accept, you would be enlightened; if not, you are not enlightened yet. It is simple.

They accept, so they are all right. They are learning how the grandmasters can be speechless, and go freely without any trouble upon the moment to go. The most difficult to resolve is the blindly incarnation, the torpor of consciousness, i.e., the action of Alaya-vijnana, the gathering of the attention (Manaskare, in Chinese making-idea). If you want to know yourself truly, you have to start from the very beginning. Actually your problem has been wholly addressed. This is also what Confucius said, to rectify names.

Li: Speaking of Confucius, I would like to tell a story of him.

Chang: Fine.

Mr. Li told the story that Confucius and his disciples identified the character 'True'.

It is said that one day Confucius encountered bandits when he was travelling round the states with Tsze-lu. The bandits recognized him as a mentor, and wrote a character 'True' for him to identify, the very character that 'languages, words and consciousnesses are not true'. Confucius said: 'My student is able to identify', and asked Tsze-lu to identify. Tsze-lu said: 'it is very easy, it is "True".' The bandits said: 'You are wrong. Ask your mentor to identify.' Confucius considered it unnecessary and asked a second disciple to identify, but the second disciple also identified 'True' and was rejected by the bandits. Then Confucius looked over the character and said: 'I know, "straight" upper and "eight" lower, in fact it is two characters.' So sometimes Confucius was also casual.

Chang: Confucius was not wrong. Master Nan's Alternative Deciphering of Confucian Analects was invited by Mr. Wang Sheng and Mr. Xiao Zheng-zhi, after Chiang Kai-Shek and Chiang Ching-kuo went to Taiwan, a million copies of which were distributed to military and universities. It was also Master Nan’s entrance to the mainland. The first word in Confucian Analects, 'Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application', is exactly Buddhist learning of everything over time and space. 'With a constant perseverance and application', you have to practice anywhere at any time. What Confucius said was completely right, but nobody could be like that. From First Emperor of Qin Dynasty, Confucius was killed in social disruption, and again deified in social stability. Bullshit Chinese philosophy of history that the world evolves in unification-splitting-reunification cycles. The two books All Men Are Brothers and The Romance of the Three Kingdoms have disturbed China for thousand years. How miserable! It is never on track, but engaged in consciousnesses, thoughts, languages, All Men Are Brothers and The Romance of the Three Kingdoms.

待續

2013-09-28

達摩書院

To be continued.

2013.9.28

Dharma Academy