《指月錄》

張尚德講述

天儀記錄

魏盛英譯

 

第一次

七佛偈

休息是大法

 

Book of Moon-directing

Lecturer: Shang-te Chang

Recorder: Tian-yi

Translator: Wei Sheng

Lecture 1

Verses of Seven Buddhas (the seven past Buddhas)

And

Zen

To Rest is the Great and Deep Wisdom of Life.

 

 

《指月錄》包豬肉

各位大家好!

我想了很久,如何跟各位說《指月錄》,要怎麼個談法。我準備用照相的方式。抽出來、照相的方式講述,這是第一點。

Book of Moon-directing as pork wrapper

  Hello everyone,

  I reflected on how to interpret the Book of Moon-directing for a long while, and choose the form of Montage, that is, to focus on excerpts from the book as snapping photos. This is my first point.

 

《指月錄》是1602年,明朝萬曆時第一次印出來,超過四百年了。南老師講:《指月錄》是天下第一奇書。比《易經》還要奇。南老師從大陸來到台灣,祂甚麼都沒有帶,就帶了這一本《指月錄》。祂這麼一講,我就重視這本書。但是,在我四十八歲以前,從頭到尾也不知道《指月錄》究竟是講甚麼。而且,我對這本書非常的沒有感覺。這話怎麼說呢?在民國四十七、或四十八年的時候,日子記不非常清楚,第一次用了很粗的紙印了《指月錄》,像書本一樣那麼大,印成五本。其時有一位名叫聶公揚,他發心掏了一點錢印了《指月錄》。聶先生是豐原市區公所社會科科長,他說要殺豬的做一點好事,大家湊一點錢來印這個《指月錄》,印好後,分一點給那些殺豬的。殺豬的他們也不知道《指月錄》是什麼。那個時候台灣很窮,連報紙、一般的紙都是不容易有的,所以那些賣豬肉的就把《指月錄》一張一張撕下來包豬肉,《指月錄》包豬肉,早期是這樣的。

  It has been over four hundred years since the first publication of the Book of Moon-directing in 1602, during the Reign of Wanli in the Ming Dynasty. Master Nan (Huai-Jin Nan) has said: 'The Book of Moon-directing is No.1 miraculous book in the world, even more extraordinary than Iching.' He had no book with him except a copy of the Book of Moon-directing when he left Mainland China for Taiwan in the past. Hearing his words, I paid special attention to this book. However, I was totally lost in the book until I was 48. Moreover, I made no sense of it. You know what? During 47/48 R.O.C (1958/59), the first print of the book in Taiwan was divided into five volumes and produced on rough paper in standard sizes. The sponsor, Mr. Gong-yang Nie, head of the social office in Feng-yuan City, raised fund from butcher’s union for charity, and then the union received some complimentary copies in return. Unfortunately, those butchers were ignorant of the book. At that period of privation, Taiwan was short of newspapers and papers, so the butchers tore pages from the book to wrap pork. Thus the Book of Moon-directing was used as pork wrappers in early years.

 

後來我四十八歲時,南老師收留我。可以說天天,我就泡在這個《指月錄》堶情A跟祂學習《指月錄》這本書。當然,沒有學好。這是第二點跟各位報告的。

  Afterwards at the age of 48, I was took in by Master Nan. Under his mentorship, I dwelt on the Book of Moon-directing day and night. Anyway, I am not well learned. This is the second point I want to make.

體與法報化

    第三點:佛法是講法、報、化三身的;知道了法報化三身,超越法報化三身,成就遊戲三昧,不認為自己成就遊戲三昧,這就是禪。

Substance and Trinity (Threefold Body) of Buddha

  Third, the Buddhism comprises the Trinity of Buddha -- Dharma body, Retribution body, and Transformation body. To realize the Trinity, to transcend the Trinity, to accomplish Gaming Samadhi and further to be unconcerned about all the above, this is Zen.

 

《指月錄》一書,可以說是禪門中經典中的經典。所以這麼多年來,學禪的當然不會不看《指月錄》,將來,假若要學禪的,也非特別重視《指月錄》不可。

  The Book of Moon-directing is the King of the Kings in Zen scriptures. It has always been studied by Zen trainees, and will be particularly concerned with in the future.

 

  《指月錄》首先即談七佛偈的描述法身,法身即哲學上所說的本體。法身無相、法身如幻,七佛都是如此認定的。報身無瑕,是大菩薩和佛修成的果位;化身億萬,是佛與菩薩度眾的感應道交。

  The beginning of the Book of Moon-directing, verses of Seven Buddhas, talks about Dharma body, the 'substance' in philosophical words. The Dharma body is formless and illusionary, which is agreed by the Seven Buddhas. The flawless Retribution body, is the result of practice by Grand Bodhisattvas and Buddhas. The infinite Transformation body, is the interpenetrative salvation of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas to serve sentient beings.

 

第四點我想向各位特別點出的是:過去,古今東方和西方,表達存在〈包括人的本身〉究竟是甚麼,很多都離不開一種說法,就是「體」。把這個體看做形而上的本身,形而下便是相與用,合在一起,用哲學的名詞來講,是體、相、用。相對於佛法來講是法、報、化,法身就是體。過去許多研究佛法者,都是如此表達的。

  The Fourth point, which I want to emphasize, is: the concept of 'substance' used to be ubiquitiously employed in the West and the East, to describe what exactly the existences (including human beings) are. 'Substance' is considered to be the ontological entity, while 'attributes' and 'function' are physical counterpart. On the whole, the philosophical terms of substance, attributes and function correspond to Dharma body, Retribution body, and Transformation body in Buddhism respectively. Traditionally, the word ’substance’ is commonly used to represent Dharma body in many ancient literatures of Buddhism.

 

在南老師的著作裡面,祂有很多的地方也提到體。但是,當祂提到體的時候,祂會說:

「你抓到一個甚麼體,那也是不對的。」

比如說,祂說的《維摩詰經》堶探N有提到,還有其他的著作等等都提過,這是南老師寫作的方式。

  Master Nan also mentioned ‘substance’ in his works. However, he would add: 'Attachment to substance is even wrong.' (see the lectures on Vimalakirti-Nivdesa Sutra and others for his way of interpretation)

 

同時,我慢慢發現:過去談「空」,也有問題。空,比如《大智度論》有十八空,然後,《大般若經》有二十空,《大智度論》也好,《大般若經》也好,最後都把一切空都否定掉了。

  Moreover, I gradually run into similar difficulty with the concept of 'Emptiness (Sunya)'. There are eighteen and twenty 'Emptiness' in Mahaprajna-paramita Sastra& Sutra, which are all denied at last.

 

我在研究哲學時,是從語言和邏輯辯證法及西洋經驗哲學這個方式進去的。對於語言的構造和語言的意義這方面,我非常喜歡研究與重視,我就有一個問題:既然在談空,為什麼最後把它否定掉了?幾十年以來,我一直被這個問題困擾。後來我慢慢的慢慢的瞭解到,原來佛法所說的空,是相對於有來說的,是相對於成住壞的過程來說的,有成住壞,然後產生一個結果,最後這個結果叫做「空」。並不是說成住壞的空以外,另外有一個甚麼空。我發現在經典中本身有這麼一個知識的內容,因緣所生法,是空,超越空之因緣所生法,便是菩薩,便是佛。菩薩和佛是有,不是空。所以結論:

佛法最終是談有的,不是談空。成菩薩、佛的本身,祂還是有。

讀《指月錄》,這個不抓住的話,《指月錄》是很難瞭解的。

  My understanding of philosophy was deepened via the means of linguistics, logics/dialectics, and empirical philosophy. I was interested in and focused on the morphology and semantics (constructs and meaning) of languages. A question came to me which puzzled me for decades: why do we deny 'Emptiness' ultimately since we have talked about it? Later, I gradually realized that emptiness in Buddhism is opposite to existence, in relation to the process of arising, abiding and changing. Emptiness is the consequence of arising, abiding and changing, nothing else. I found this knowledge in scriptures: whatever is contingently related, that is explained as emptiness; to transcend emptiness of 'whatever is contingently related', you will be Bodhisattva and Buddha. Bodhisattvas and Buddhas are existences, not emptiness. In conclusion:

  the ultimate Buddhism is about existence nor emptiness. Bodhisattva and Buddha in themselves are still existences.

  Without this insight, the Book of Moon-directing is hard to comprehend.

 

  前面提到沒有什麼體,現在看佛眼大禪師是如何說沒有體的:

(指月錄卷29):

佛眼禪師一日回頭,見聖僧。忽然知歸。便云:

「回頭忽見本來身。本身非見亦非真。

    若將本體同真體。歷劫迢迢受苦辛。」

沒有個甚麼本體,本來無一物也。

大家背一背吧!

「回頭忽見本來身,本身非見亦非真,

   若將本體同真體,歷劫迢迢受苦辛。」

沒有甚麼一個本體,沒有一個甚麼真體也,閣下要體,那就歷劫迢迢的好好去體吧!

  We have just mentioned that nothing can be called as substance. Now let's see Grandmaster Fo-yan's teaching:

(Book of Moon-directing, Vol 29):

One day Zen Master Fo-yan turned arount, saw a saint, and was enlightened on a sudden. Then he said:

Turning around to percept oneself suddenly,

which is neither perception nor reality.

Taking the substance as reality,

You would suffer in cycles endlessly.

  There is no so-called substance. All in all, nothingness.

  Let's rehearse.

Turning around to percept oneself suddenly,

which is neither perception nor reality.

Taking the substance as reality,

You would suffer in cycles endlessly.

  There is no so-called substance, there is no so-called reality. If you attach to substance, go ahead to the endless cycles.

 

釋迦牟尼佛講的最重要的一部經:解節經,也強調,沒有一個什麼體。祂說:

「莫言其體」。

德國大哲學家康德也說:

物自體是不可知的

也就是說:

沒有一個什麼體

現代科技更指明出一點:

變易無方

真禪無體

沒有一個甚麼本體,沒有一個甚麼空,這個跟各位報告了,佛法最後還是修「有」,最後還是歸到有。

  One of the most important sutras by Shakyamuni Buddha, Jie-jie Sutra, also emphasized that there is no so-called substance. His Holyness said:

Donot talk about substance.

  The Great German philosopher, Kant, also said:

  Thing-in-itself is inexplicable.

  That is to say:

  There is no so-called substance.

  The modern scientific technologies further demonstrate:

  Zen is insubstantial, and formlessly changing.

  There is no so-called substance, there is no so-called emptiness. I have make the speech that Buddhism at last is about cultivation of existence and reversion to existence.

 

 我們今天這一堂是講七佛偈與禪,由指月錄從頭開始講起。還沒有講七佛偈之前,跟各位提一句,文殊菩薩是七佛的老師。佛法最後是歸到《楞嚴經》、《楞伽經》、《維摩詰經》、《華嚴經》、《大般若經》、還有《法華經》、《大涅槃經》等,所有以上這些經典,都是透過慈悲喜捨、歷劫修行,成就不可思議境界的大神通、大神通的不可思議境界。通由「定」發,究竟什麼是定,以後再說。

  Our present lecture is about verses of Seven Buddhas and Zen, from the beginning of the Book of Moon-directing. Before interpretation of the verses, by the way, Manjusri Bodhisattva has been Master of the Seven Buddhas. The ultimate Buddhism are compiled in Shurangama Sutra, Lankavatara Sutra, Vimalakirti-Nivdesa Sutra, Avatamsaka Sutra, Maha-prajna-paramita Sutra, Lotus Sutra, Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra, and so on. All of these require the Four Unlimited Mind (kindness, compassion, delight, renunciation) and permanent cultivation in cycles of the universe, to achieve supernatural abilities of inexplicable realm. The supernatural abilities are from samadhi (concentration), which we will talk about later.

 

七佛偈

  《指月錄》卷一

第一佛:毘婆尸佛。偈曰:

「身從無相中受生。猶如幻出諸形象。

幻人心識本來無。罪福皆空無所住。」

Verses of Seven Buddhas

 Book of Moon-directing, Vol. 1

The 1st Buddha, Vipasyin Buddha, said:

The body is born from formless,

As all forms are manifested as illusion.

The consciousness of the illusionary creatures is originally insubstantial;

Either sin or rightness is of emptiness and non-abiding.

 

「身從無相中受生」。什麼是無相?釋迦牟尼佛說:

「阿陀那識甚深細,一切種子如瀑流,

   我於凡愚不開演,恐彼分別執為我。」

  The body is born from formless. What is formless? As Shakyamuni Buddha said:

The Adana-vijnana, profound and subtle,

proceeds with all the Bija like a violent torrent.

Fearing that they may believe it to be Atman or the Self,

I have not revealed it to mediocre and ignorant people.

(tr. by Wei Tat)

 

什麼是阿陀那識?山河大地一切的一切,包括人在內,就是阿陀那識的展現。為甚麼叫做無相?是諸法空相。有無相生,陰陽相濟,是因緣所生法,山河大地一切變來變去,我們在此講了二十多年,阿陀那識的無相、無相的阿陀那識,就在你身旁,就在你身上,就在你二十四小時周圍一切的一切中,就在你生生世世無相中。所以僧肇在《肇論》中說:

人是來自「無何有之鄉」。

  What is Adana-vijnana? All in all, including the human beings, are the manifestations of Adana-vijnana. Why formless? All dharmas are empty of characteristics. Existence and non-existence give birth the one to the other, Yin and Yang coordinate together, and whatever contingently related on heaven and earth transform back and forth. We have lectured here for over twenty years that Adana-vijnana of formless is beside you, is in you, in anything all around you within twenty-four hours, in your formless for generations. Therefore, Seng-zhao said in his Zhao-lun:

Man comes from the 'tract where there is nothing else'.

 

來自於無何有之鄉,我是相信的。一切從無相中相生。幻出,無一不幻,就像莊子所說的,莊周夢蝴蝶,蝴蝶夢莊周,無一不幻化,沒有一樣不幻化,抓不住的,絕對抓不住。莊子將這種主客觀存在變化不居的情形,稱作:

物化。

  Man comes from the 'tract where there is nothing else', I believe that. Anything is born from formless. All forms are manifested as illusion, without exception. Just as Kwang-tse (Kwang Kau) said, 'I did not know whether it had formerly been Kau dreaming that he was a butterfly, or it was now a butterfly dreaming that it was Kau.' Everything is transformed as illusion, and hence uncatchable. According to Kwang-tse, the situation that subject and object change formlessly is labelled as 'Transformation of Things'. (tr. by James Legge)

 

所以紅樓夢也說:

「幻作真時真亦假、無為有處有還無。」

又說:

「仙姑造石本荒唐,又向荒唐作大荒。」

  The Story of the Stone also said:

Truth becomes fiction when the fiction's true;

Real becomes not-teal where the unreal's real.

  In addition:

Nü-wa’s stone-smelting is a tale unfounded:

On such weak fancies our Great Fable’s grounded.

 (tr. by David Hawkes)

 

  「幻人心識本來無」。心識,甚麼叫心識,主體存在的起始性、功能性、認識性,叫心識。本來無,本來沒有。這個心識,阿賴耶識、第七識末那識、最後是最重要的第六意識,慢慢發展,有眼耳鼻舌身前五識,本來是無的。

  The consciousness of the illusionary creatures is originally insubstantial. What is the consciousness? The consciousness is the origination, function, and perception of the subjective existences. Originally insubstantial, all in all, nothingness. The consciousness, constituted by Alaya-vijnana, the seventh Manas-vijnana, later the pivotal sixth Mano-vijnana, afterwards the 'prior five consciousnesses' (visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory and tactile-vijnana), is insubstantial at first.

 

「罪福皆空無所住」。無覆無記無善惡,這是講阿賴耶識的本身。

  That sin and rightness (evil and good) are of emptiness and nonabiding. Alaya-vijnana in itself is non-impedimentary moral neutral.

 

  要注意一點,七佛偈都是講阿陀那識的本身,講法身,它不是講化身和報身。法身無相,法身無生無滅,法身是幻,存在無一不是法身。所以打禪板時,說:

「這個就是!」

就是法身!這個就是那個,那個就是這個。也叫做:

內內外外打成一片

是怎樣打香板呢?

                    答:

與諸佛道交、由諸佛發令,

天龍八部也同在,

如此而已。

  Be careful, the verses of Seven Buddhas are all about Adana-vijnana in itself, about Dharma body other than Retribution body and Transformation body. Dharma body is formless, neither arise nor cease, as illusion. All existences are corresponding to Dharma body without exception. Therefore when I beat the ferule I say:

'Here it is!'

  It is Dharma body. This is that, and that is this. It is,

Unity of inside and outside

  How to beat the ferule?

The answer:

 to interpenetrate with Buddhas and to receive order from them,

to be with the Crowds of deva and nagas as well.

That's it.

 

釋迦牟尼佛說:

「法本法無法,無法法亦法,今付無法時,法法何曾法。」

「法本法無法、無法法亦法」:法,有;無法,無。有也在無堶情A變來變去。

「今付無法時,法法何曾法」:有無本身也是存在在一起,透過理解、修持、認識,有和無之一切都超越。所以,我們會看到,七佛都是超越法身的。用甚麼來超越法身呢?

  Shakyamuni Buddha said:

All beings conform to non-being in essence,

And non-being is in accordance with beings.

Now I entrust the teaching of non-being to you,

That both beings and non-being are dispensable.

  All beings conform to non-being at first, and non-being is in accordance with beings. Beings, existences, non-being, non-existence. Existences transform in non-existence back and forth.

  Now I entrust the teaching of non-being to you, that both beings and non-being in themselves are dispensable. Existences and non-existence are concomitant, and can be transcended via comprehension, cultivation and perception. So we can see all the Seven Buddhas have transcended Dharma body. How to transcend Dharma body?

 

首先第一步,是認識了,第二步,修持,歷劫修行,成就報身和化身。法身無相。我們停在這個地方,各位莫馬馬虎虎聽過去,更要注意一點的是:

法身無待去修也

黃高証起來講一下你的理解。

  The first is perception (of Dharma body), and the second is cultivation in cycles of the universe, to achieve Retribution body and Transformation body. Dharma body is formless. Let's have a break, and you can not be sloppy. Note that:

Dharma body is beyond cultivation.

  Dr. Huang, stand up and talk out your understanding.

 

黃:剛才這段講阿陀那識本身,是無相的。一切的存在原本來自於無何有之鄉,是無覆無記和無善無惡,抓不住的。七佛偈都是歸到阿陀那識本身、講法身,證到法身後,歷劫修行,修報身和化身。

  Dr. Huang: Adana-vijnana is formless in itself. All beings originate from ‘a land of nothing’. They are non-impedimentary, moral neutral (neither good nor evil), and uncatchable. The verses of Seven Buddhas are all about reversion to Adana-vijnana, about realization of Dharma body, and subsequent cultivation in cycles of the universe to achieve Retribution body and Transformation body.

 

OK!

高証理解對了。

我們生命本來來自無何有之鄉,有了這個生命以後,要成佛,那是另外一個層次了。好了,剛才我們講的第一個偈,可以做個結論:

有其名而無其實。

  OK!

  Dr. Huang's understanding is correct.

  Our life comes from the 'tract where there is nothing else' at first. It is another realm once we have life and want to be Buddha. Well, we can make a conclusion on the first verse:

Provisional names are insubstantial.

 

第二佛尸棄佛。偈曰:

「起諸善法本是幻。造諸惡業亦是幻。

身如聚沫心如風。幻出無根無實性。」

「起諸善法本是幻」:善法也是幻。造諸惡業也是幻。「身如聚沫心如風」,身也是幻,心也是幻。「幻出無根無實性」,沒有根。在中國禪門的故事上,誰把這第二個偈子証得非常好,誰啊?

The 2nd Buddha, Sikhin Buddha, said:

Action of the good is illusionary in essence,

And volition of the evil karma is also illusionary.

Both the foams like body and wind like mind,

Are out of illusion devoid of origin or reality.

  Action of the good is illusionary in essence, good is illusionary, and volition of the evil karma is also illusionary. Both the foams like body and wind like mind, body is illusionary, and mind is illusionary. Are out of illusion devoid of origin or reality, without origin. Who has excellently proved the 2nd verse in the Chinese stories of Zen? Who?

 

答:

南泉大禪師:

「南泉斬貓」。

南泉上堂,手中「恭恭敬敬」的捧著一隻貓,

務請特別注意:

恭恭敬敬

南泉說:

「說!說!我要斬貓,各位誰說得出來,我就不斬,說不出來,我就斬喔!快說,快說!」

小和尚嚇得發抖,啪的一聲,斬掉了。

南泉大禪師不是斬貓,是什麼?

學禪像南泉去斬貓,那就錯了,不是大菩薩,沒有真能見事效的願力,此事玩不起。

  The answer is:

Grandmaster Nan-quan

Nan-quan cuts the cat

  Nan-quan stepped on the lecture hall, holding a cat in hands in an attitude of respect.

  Please note:

in an attitude of respect

  Nan-quan said:

'Say! Say! I will cut the cat. If any of you say a word I will not cut, or else I will cut! Hurry up! Hurry up!'

  The little monks trembled with fear. Crack! It was cut.

  Grandmaster Nan-quan didn't cutting cat, did him?

Meditate!

  It is wrong to learn from Nan-quan to cut cat. You cannot play with this unless you are Grand Bodhisattvas proficient in the power of vows.

 

學禪學佛,還是要在善法上。《金剛經》一開始怎麼講?

「善男子善女人,發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心,應如是住,如是生其心。」

  The study of Zen and Buddhism is still on the good. How is the beginning of the Diamond Sutra?

A good man or good woman who resolves his mind on Anuttarasamyaksambodhi should thus rely and thus subdue his mind.

(tr. by the Buddhist Text Translation Society)

 

《金剛經》一開始就說光了,要善!而且要絕對的善。那你善落在甚麼地方,就是落在阿耨多羅三藐三菩提上,就是無上正等正覺,甚麼叫無上正等正覺?就是永遠為眾生服務。住呢?

「應如是住,如是降伏其心」

住在無上正等正覺上面,也就是住在善法上面。

 

  In the beginning of the Diamond Sutra, It is finished: be good! Be absolutely good. Where do you locate the good? It's located in Anuttarasamyaksambodhi, namely, the unexcelled complete enlightenment. What is the unexcelled complete enlightenment? Permanent service to all creatures. How to rely your mind?

...should thus rely and thus subdue his mind.

  You should rely on the unexcelled complete enlightenment, rely on the good.

 

各位,我再提醒一句,它這裡是講法身,阿陀那識,無覆無記,它沒有個甚麼染污不染污,但是,第七識有覆無記,有覆是染污,第七識情執,就有染污了,也不在善惡中。情執就是情執,自己死抓自己,有個什麼善惡。畜生、地獄、餓鬼是事實,善惡是心理上的價值判斷。

當然,說地獄是惡、天堂是善,那本來由人的任便語言,說說!說說!

  Note again that we are talking about Dharma body, Adana-vijnana, of non-impedimentary moral neutrality, independent of definement or purity. However, the seventh consciousness is of impedimentary moral neutrality. Being impedimentary means defilement from Manas-vijnana (the seventh consciousness), which is independent of good or evil. Manas-vijnana is simply Manas-vijnana, the attachment to oneself, unconcerned about good or evil. The realms of animal, hungry ghost and hell are facts, good and evil are mental value judgement.

  Certainly, it is fictitious construction in human languages that hell is evil and heaven is good, as it's merely an expression.

 

第三佛 毘舍浮佛。偈曰:

「假借四大以為身。心本無生因境有。

前境若無心亦無。罪福如幻起亦滅。」

The 3rd Buddha, Visvabhu Buddha, said:

The Four Elements are taken as the provisional body,

And objects unfold (are manifested by) the unarisen mind.

The mind is as unobtainable as the current objects,

That evil and good arise and cease as illusion.

 

    四大本空,地水火風不是沒有,四大本空不是沒有,是互為變化、互為消失、互為存在。特別是在物理學上,在化學上,在生物學上的成長是如此。最近我看了一部電影:地心探險。很有意思。探到地心的一千五百公里,各層各層各層,都有奇怪的動物,吃什麽東西都不知道。各層有各種不同的變化,真是很有意思。地代表一切骨頭,硬的。水:各種不同液體。火:動能。風:空氣、呼吸。

  The Four Elements are emptiness in themselves. The Earth, Water, Fire, and Wind are not inexistence. The emptiness in essence is not inexistence, that the Four Elements transform, perish and exist together, especially in the development of physics, chemistry, and biology. I watch a film recently, Journey to the Center of the Earth, pretty interesting, that layers by layers one thousand and five hundred kilometres below the ground are explored, in which there are strange animals whose food is unknown. There are variety of changes in each layer, which are pretty enjoyable. Earth stands for bone, which is hard. Water, kinds of liquids. Fire, energy of motion. Wind, air and breath.

 

「假借四大以為身」,我們人離開人世時先是四大失掉效用,最後才是阿陀那識、中陰身離開。你說阿陀那識是物質性的嗎?也未必見得,中陰身最後離開,所以《八識規矩頌》有一句話:

「去後來先做主公」

就是講四大分離。投胎是在阿陀那識的中陰身先來,死亡,是最後離開四大。父母親的精子和卵子結合的時候那完全是物質性的,然後,父母〈動物也是一樣〉,動物性結合了以後,若是健全的呢,中陰身〈基督教說靈魂,道教說魂〉投到這個堶情A那甚麼時候投呢,佛法就很有意思了,看父母親當時那種情況,說是男的比較親近母親,女的比較親近父親,有這麼一個道理在堶情C四大合在一起,本來是一大,地水火風互變,因為地水火風互變是一大,所以呢,變來變去,無所不變、無一不變,如此就沒有甚麼變了。《易經》又稱為變經,最後呢?變成到沒有甚麼四大不四大,佛法就是這麼說的,因此要超越四大。來自《易經》的《中庸》結論也是這樣說:

「無聲無臭」

  The Four Elements are taken as the provisional body. When we human beings leave the world, the Four Elements lose efficacy in the beginning, and the Adana-vijnana (intermediate existence) departs in the end. Do you think that Adana-vijnana is material? Not necessarily. The intermediate existence departs in the end, as said in the Verses Delineating The Eight Consciousnesses:

After going and before coming, it's in control.

(tr. by Ronald Epstein)

which talks about the scatter of the Four Elements. The Adana-vijnana (intermediate existence) comes before the reincarnation, and departs after the scatter of the Four Elements. It is completely material at the moment of fertilization of parents in human beings (as well as creatures), and after the intercourse, in the case of healthiness, the intermediate existence will reincarnate inside. When to reincarnate? According to the interesting Buddhism, it depends on conditions of the parents, that boy is close to mother while girl is close to father. The Four Elements together converge into one element in itself, and the Earth, Water, Fire, and Wind transform mutually. As the Earth, Water, Fire, and Wind transform mutually as one element, they change back and forth, all over all, without exceptions, and therefore there is no such change. The Iching is also named the Book of Change. What's the end of change? There is no such Four Elements, said in the Buddhism, and hence we should transcend the Four Elements. The conclusion of the Doctrine of the Mean, following Iching, said:

'(The doings of the supreme Heaven) have neither sound nor smell.'

(tr. by James Legge)

 

「心本無生因境有,前境若無心亦無。」這個偈子,含有四念處在內:

「觀身不淨,觀受是苦,觀心無常,觀法無我。」

法身的四念處,超越客觀與主觀。

  And objects unfold (are manifested by) the unarisen mind. The mind is as unobtainable as the current objects. This verse implies the Four Bases of Mindfulness:

contemplating one's body as defiled,

contemplating one's feelings as painful,

contemplating one's mind as constantly changing,

contemplating things as devoid of inherent existence.

  The Four Bases of Mindfulness of Dharma body are beyond object and subject.

 

第四佛拘留孫佛。偈曰:

「見身無實是佛身。了心如幻是佛幻。

   了得身心本性空。斯人與佛何殊別。」

The 4th Buddha, Krakucchanda Buddha, said:

It is Buddha's body to know the body as insubstantial,

And it is Buddha's illusion to perceive the mind as illusion.

Perceiving the emptiness of body and mind in essence,

There is no difference between him and Buddha.

 

這個第四佛偈子非常重要。第四個偈子要自己去證明自己究竟是什麼。「見」就是證明,你自己證明自己是佛,怎麼樣證明自己是佛呢?

見身無實!

  This 4th verse is very important. It is to certify oneself. To know is to certify, to certify yourself as Buddha. How to certify yourself as Buddha?

To know the body as insubstantial.

 

「見身無實是佛身」。身不實在!觀這個身體,四大本空,色受想行識五蘊為幻。整天自己抓著自己生理,不斷的抓著自己心理的在那媟d,不是抓東,就是抓西,要嘛要南,一下子又要北,還不夠,要抓上抓下,仍不滿足。釋迦牟尼說,給你東南西北諸佛還不夠,好嘛,就再給你一個中央毘盧遮那佛,你去抓啊,

  It is Buddha's body to know the body as insubstantial.The body is insubstantial. To contemplate the body, you will find that the Four Elements are of emptiness in essence, and the Five Skandhas (matter or form, sensation, conception, volition, and consciousness) are illusionary. Everyday we are attached to our physiology and mentality, attached to east, to west, to south, to north, to above and below, and never satisfied. Shakyamuni Buddha said, since you are not satisfied with Buddhas in the four directions, I further offer the central Mahavairocana Buddha to you.

 

「見身無實是佛身」,身心根本不實在。有個甚麼了不起,活著哪有個甚麼了不起?死呢,也沒甚麼起不了!貧窮富有是一樣幻的。愈窮愈好辦,要如實參、如實知、如實解、如實悟,就有幾分解脫了。當一個人甚麼都沒有了,好辦了!對啊。怕有怕沒有的天天在那媟d,苦也!苦也!

  It is Buddha's body to know the body as insubstantial. The body and mind are insubstantial in essence. Whatever life to be conceited? Whatever death to be abased? Being poor is as illusionary as being rich. The poorer the better. To meditate truthfully, to perceive truthfully, to understand truthfully, to awaken truthfully, you will be liberated a bit. It is easy to handle when one had nothing. Right. It is painful to be afraid of this and that day and night.

 

「了心如幻是佛幻」。

《金剛經》的結論出來了,

「一切有為法,如夢幻泡影」。

佛法的初步結論是:

「一切有為法,如夢幻泡影,如露亦如電,應做如是觀」。

身心是有為法。身心不是無為法,無為法有六種無為:

虛空無為、擇滅無為、非擇滅無為、

不動滅無為、想受滅無為、真如無為。

六無為是超過凡夫的身心的,超越法身、在法身中又超越法身的。法身無相也。

解深密經強調:

成就無為法後,又要超越無為法。

那就是:

入禪

  And it is Buddha's illusion to perceives the mind as illusion.

  We can explain this with the conclusion of the Diamond Sutra:

All conditioned dharmas are like a dream, an illusion, a bubble or a shadow.

  The preliminary conclusion of Buddhism is:

All conditioned dharmas are like a dream, an illusion, a bubble or a shadow, like dew or like a lightning flash. Contemplate them thus.

(tr. by the Buddhist Text Translation Society)

  The body and mind are conditioned dharmas, not unconditioned dharmas. There are six unconditioned dharmas:

unconditioned empty space,

unconditioned extinction which is attained by selection,

unconditioned extinction which is unselected,

unconditioned unmoving extinction,

unconditioned extinction of feeling and thinking,

unconditioned True Suchness.

  The six unconditioned dharmas are beyond body and mind of the ordinary persons, and are immanent in Dharma body and beyond Dharma body. Dharma body is formless.

  As emphasized in the Samdhinirmocana Sutra:

  To achieve the unconditioned dharmas first, and to transcend the unconditioned dharmas next.

  That is:

  To Zen

 

「了得身心本性空,斯人與佛何殊別」。

身心本性,存在的原始性,凡夫存在、現象存在的本來它是空的,它不實在,它不永恆,它在變化中;沒有超越它,它就在六道輪迴受苦,三世因果中受苦。如果知道且了得身心本性空,斯人與佛何殊別。這樣就跟佛是一樣的了。第四佛偈子非常非常的重要也。

  Perceiving the emptiness of body and mind in essence, there is no difference between him and Buddha.

  The nature of body and mind, the primitiveness of existences, the essence of ordinary persons and phenomena is empty, insubstantial, impermanent, in change. Before transcendence, it suffers in Reincarnation of Six Directions and Karma of Three Periods. Knowing and Perceiving the emptiness of body and mind in essence, there is no difference between him and Buddha.He is the same as Buddha. The 4th verse is extraordinarily important.

 

好吧,大家休息一下吧!

釋迦牟尼佛說:

休息是大法。

放下即休息也!

  Well, let's have a break.

  Shakyamuni Buddha said:

To rest is the Great and Deep Wisdom of Life.

To cast off with Transcendence is exactly to rest.

 

上篇

下篇待續。

 

2013.09.14

達摩書院

End of Part I.

Part II to be continued.

 

2013.09.14

Dharma Academy

My Understanding to

Dr. Wei Sheng :

1.Hope you read the English book of Philosophy written by famous Professor Fang Dong-Mei, and the English translation of Chinese Classical books by James Legge --- to learn from these great scholars how to use English terms and forms of sentences.

2.Prepare to go teaching Vijnaptimatra and Zen abroad. This is an important lifelong career for you and Dr. Huang Gao Zheng in the future.

3.Coincide with deep solitude and lonely Universe. Truly enjoy transcendental happiness with your holy Mind.

 

Shang-Te

2013.10.15

Dharma Academy